International Traffic
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Hiroyuki Noda

Aiming to identify the potentially reduced malaria cases by stagnation of international traffic after the COVID-19 pandemic, a longitudinal analysis of malaria cases as well as entries of Japanese and foreigners was conducted using data from 5 April 1999 to 30 September 2021 in Japan. Multivariable risk ratios were calculated with the Poison regression model as a predictive model of malaria cases by the number of entries for Japanese and foreigners. A generalized regression model was used to examine an association of time trend with entries for Japanese and foreigners using data before 2019, to estimate the potentially reduced number of entries after 2020. The potentially reduced number of malaria cases was estimated by the potentially reduced number of entries for Japanese and foreigners after 2020 using a multivariable Poison regression model. The multivariable risk ratio (95% confidence intervals) of malaria case numbers per 100,000 persons increment of entries per day was 3.41 (1.50–7.77) for Japanese and 1.47 (0.92–2.35) for foreigners. During 2020, a potential reduction of 28 (95% confidence limit: 22–34) malaria cases was estimated, which accounted for 58% (52–63%) of malaria cases in Japan. These finding suggest that the stagnation of international traffic during the COVID-19 pandemic reduced the number of malaria cases in Japan. This model may be helpful for countries without indigenous malaria to predict future trends of imported malaria cases.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (7 (113)) ◽  
pp. 36-43
Oleksij Fomin ◽  
Alyona Lovska ◽  
Andriy Klymash ◽  
Mykhailo Keremet

The dynamic loading and strength of the frame of the “East-West” type covered wagon were determined. To increase the efficiency of operation of covered wagons in international traffic, it is proposed to improve their frames. This improvement consists in using a sectional partition in the body in order to divide it into two separate sections. This allows the transportation of different goods in one wagon, and therefore decreasing empty mileage. The longitudinal loading of the covered wagon frame was determined. The case of shunting impact was considered. The studies were carried out in a flat coordinate system. The loading mode of the frame of the covered wagon in the empty and loaded states was considered. The acceleration acting on the covered wagon frame in the loaded state was 0.37g, empty – 0.42g, which does not exceed the standard values. The wagon motion is rated “excellent”. The main strength indicators of the covered wagon frame were determined. The calculation was made by the finite element method. It was found that the maximum equivalent stresses are concentrated in the area of interaction of the center sill with the bolster beam and amounted to 340 MPa, which is lower than the yield stress of the material. Maximum displacements occur in the middle of the frame beams and are about 12 mm. The natural vibration frequencies of the covered wagon frame were calculated. The research will help to increase the efficiency of using covered wagons in international traffic. Also, the research results can be useful developments in the creation of innovative rolling stock structures

2021 ◽  
pp. 125-196
Eric L. Hirschhorn ◽  
Brian J. Egan ◽  
Edward J. Krauland

Chapter 2 covers U.S. government controls on exports, reexports, and transfers of “U.S.-origin” goods, software, and technology, and the provision of services, that are military in nature. These are governed principally by the Arms Export Control Act of 1976 and the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR), which are administered by the State Department’s Directorate of Defense Trade Controls (DDTC). The chapter explains: which items are subject to the ITAR; the basis and criteria for the ITAR’s restrictions; the requirement to register with DDTC if you export or manufacture items subject to the ITAR or if you are involved in other activities regulated by the ITAR; how to determine whether your product or technology is covered and, if so, whether you will need a license to export or reexport it; how to get a license if one is required; how to clear and document the actual export; the potential penalties for violating the rules; and reporting requirements related to political contributions, fees, and commissions paid in connection with certain sales, . The chapter also explains how the ITAR relate to the regulatory regimes covered in other parts of the book.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (161) ◽  
pp. 191-198
O. Pavlenko ◽  
V. Nefyodov ◽  
D. Velykodnyi

The paper analyzes the existing trends and prospects for the cargo delivery logistics development in the direction from Ukraine to the European Union within the individual companies work and certain routes, which allowed to form the research purpose in this development. The chosen topic is quite relevant, because the consolidated cargoes delivery processes are an logistics formation integral part in modern production processes. One of the ways to reduce the cargoes cost and services is to reduce the supplying cargoes cost. In the scientific works of Ukrainian and foreign scientists it was determined that a well-developed logistics services market with appropriate operators and infrastructure, will effectively implement the consolidated cargoes delivery technology in international traffic to reduce costs for all participants in this process. It is determined that it is necessary to choose a methodical approach to building efficient consolidated cargoes delivery logistics from Ukraine to Europe. It is proposed to consider this process in the two alternative channels to determine the effective consolidated cargoes supply building from Ukraine to Europe: "Shippers - Departure country terminal - Consignees" - "Logistics Channel-1"; "International Transport Company - Shippers – Destination terminal - Consignees" - "Logistics Channel-2". For example, "Logistics Channel-1" should be used for the consolidated cargoes delivery over long distances, where the use of light and medium load capacity vehicles is inefficient. The total supply logistics cost was chosen as an evaluation indicator of the efficient supply channel choice. Influence relevant parameters are taken into account: cargo shipment volume, shippers (consignees)number, carges transportation distance in international traffic, distance between shippers (consignees), one ton cargoes loading time, one ton cargoes warehousing time. A full-factor experiment simulation was performed, based on the results of which a regression model in power form with a nonzero coefficient was determined, in which each coefficient indicates the corresponding factor influence degree on the performance indicator. It is established that this model is the most adequate. When comparing the evaluation indicator values - the total costs, for each option, showed that the lowest value of 7.13 euros was obtained at the minimum cargoes orders volume values, the cargo transportation distance, the orders intensity. And the biggest difference of 199.86 euros was obtained when using "Logistics Channel-2" for the maximum cargo orders volume values, the cargo transportation distance through the Ukraine territory.

2021 ◽  
Vol 79 (6) ◽  
pp. 360-364
T. I. Nabatchikova ◽  
S. N. Naumenko ◽  
A. V. Kostin ◽  
G. B. Gusev

Delivery of perishable freights in proper quality essentially depends on the correct choice of a special vehicle and the correct calculation of the delivery time. According to the requirements of the Rules for the transportation of perishable freights by rail, all special vehicles by January 1, 2022 must obtain certificates of compliance with the standards established by the Agreement on the International Transportation of Perishable Foodstuffs and on special vehicles intended for these transports. This requirement applies to special vehicles used both in international traffic and for transport of perishable freights within the country. The article presents a brief classification of special vehicles used for the transportation of perishable freights. Formulas are given that allow calculating duration of transportation of such freights and average temperature of the outside air along the entire route. Procedure for choosing a special vehicle for the already known duration of freight transportation has been developed. It is concluded that the procedure proposed by the authors allows choosing the optimal special vehicle for the transportation of perishable freights. Using this sequence of calculations makes it possible to take into account the maximum number of external factors that affect the duration of transportation.

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