g protein coupled receptor
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Nan Li ◽  
Shan Shan ◽  
Xiu-Qin Li ◽  
Ting-Ting Chen ◽  
Meng Qi ◽  

G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2), an important subtype of GRKs, specifically phosphorylates agonist-activated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Besides, current research confirms that it participates in multiple regulation of diverse cells via a non-phosphorylated pathway, including interacting with various non-receptor substrates and binding partners. Fibrosis is a common pathophysiological phenomenon in the repair process of many tissues due to various pathogenic factors such as inflammation, injury, drugs, etc. The characteristics of fibrosis are the activation of fibroblasts leading to myofibroblast proliferation and differentiation, subsequent aggerate excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM). Then, a positive feedback loop is occurred between tissue stiffness caused by ECM and fibroblasts, ultimately resulting in distortion of organ architecture and function. At present, GRK2, which has been described as a multifunctional protein, regulates copious signaling pathways under pathophysiological conditions correlated with fibrotic diseases. Along with GRK2-mediated regulation, there are diverse effects on the growth and apoptosis of different cells, inflammatory response and deposition of ECM, which are essential in organ fibrosis progression. This review is to highlight the relationship between GRK2 and fibrotic diseases based on recent research. It is becoming more convincing that GRK2 could be considered as a potential therapeutic target in many fibrotic diseases.

2021 ◽  
pp. MOLPHARM-MR-2021-000429
Juan Carlos Martínez-Morales ◽  
M. Teresa Romero-Ávila ◽  
Guadalupe Reyes-Cruz ◽  
J. Adolfo García-Sáinz

2021 ◽  
Charles P Kuntz ◽  
Hope Woods ◽  
Andrew G McKee ◽  
Nathan B Zelt ◽  
Jeffrey L Mendenhall ◽  

Missense mutations that compromise the plasma membrane expression (PME) of integral membrane proteins (MPs) are the root cause of numerous genetic diseases. Differentiation of this class of mutations from those that specifically modify the activity of the folded protein has proven useful for the development and targeting of precision therapeutics. Nevertheless, it remains challenging to predict the effects of mutations on the stability and/ or expression of MPs. In this work, we utilize deep mutational scanning data to train a series of artificial neural networks to predict the effects of mutations on the PME of the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) rhodopsin from structural and/ or evolutionary features. We show that our best performing network, which we term PMEpred, can differentiate pathogenic rhodopsin variants that induce misfolding from those that primarily compromise signaling. This network also generates statistically significant predictions for the effects of mutations on the PME of another GPCR (Beta-2 adrenergic receptor) but not for an unrelated voltage-gated potassium channel (KCNQ1). Notably, our analyses of these networks suggest structural features alone are generally sufficient to recapitulate the observed mutagenic trends. Moreover, our findings imply that networks trained in this manner may be generalizable to proteins that share a common fold. Implications of our findings for the design of mechanistically specific genetic predictors are discussed.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Mei Wang ◽  
Ying Tian ◽  
Lin Miao ◽  
Wenxia Zhao

Cervical cancer is one of the dominant gynecological disorders which has poor prognosis and often diagnosed at advanced stages where it becomes nearly impossible to effectively manage this disorder. MicroRNA-300 (miR-300) has dual role in human tumorogenesis. However, characterization of its regulatory action has not been made in cervical cancer. The molecular role of miR-300 in cervical cancer was thus explored in the present study with prime focus on elucidating its mechanism of action. The results showed significant (P < 0.05) downregulation of miR-300 in cervical cancer. Overexpression of miR-300 in cervical cancer cells inhibited their proliferation in vitro by inducing apoptosis. Cervical cancer cells overexpressing miR-300 also showed decreased rates of migration and invasion. G protein-coupled receptor 34 (GPR34) was found to be the functional regulatory target of miR-300 in cervical cancer. GPR34 was found to be significantly (P < 0.05) overexpressed in cervical cancer tissues and cell lines. Silencing of GPR34 inhibited the growth of the cervical cancer cells. However, overexpression of GPR34 could prevent the tumor-suppressive effects of miR-300 on cervical cancer cells. Collectively, the results of the current study are indicative of the tumor-suppressive regulatory role of miR-300 in cervical cancer and suggestive of the potential therapeutic value of miR-300/GPR34 molecular axis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (12) ◽  
pp. 270-284
Kousalya. P ◽  
Doss VA ◽  

G-Protein Coupled Receptor (GPCR) plays a major role in cardiac hypertrophy. Isoproterenol is an agonist which binds to GPCR. This results in the activation of GS subunit. Activated Gs subunit stimulates cAMP mediated pathway. This activates the calcium signaling and elevates the calcium level. Increased calcium activates the phosphatase activity of calcineurin. Activated calcineurin dephosphorylates NFAT in cytoplasm. Dephosphorylated NFAT translocates to nucleus and binds to target region in DNA and activates re-expression of fetal genes in synergy with GATA-4 trascription factor. Reprogramming of fetal genes by NFAT- 3 and GATA-4 results in cardiac hypertrophy. Calcineurin inhibitors and rephosphorylation of NFAT can prevent cardiac hypertrophy.

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