receptor kinase
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Nan Li ◽  
Shan Shan ◽  
Xiu-Qin Li ◽  
Ting-Ting Chen ◽  
Meng Qi ◽  

G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2), an important subtype of GRKs, specifically phosphorylates agonist-activated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Besides, current research confirms that it participates in multiple regulation of diverse cells via a non-phosphorylated pathway, including interacting with various non-receptor substrates and binding partners. Fibrosis is a common pathophysiological phenomenon in the repair process of many tissues due to various pathogenic factors such as inflammation, injury, drugs, etc. The characteristics of fibrosis are the activation of fibroblasts leading to myofibroblast proliferation and differentiation, subsequent aggerate excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM). Then, a positive feedback loop is occurred between tissue stiffness caused by ECM and fibroblasts, ultimately resulting in distortion of organ architecture and function. At present, GRK2, which has been described as a multifunctional protein, regulates copious signaling pathways under pathophysiological conditions correlated with fibrotic diseases. Along with GRK2-mediated regulation, there are diverse effects on the growth and apoptosis of different cells, inflammatory response and deposition of ECM, which are essential in organ fibrosis progression. This review is to highlight the relationship between GRK2 and fibrotic diseases based on recent research. It is becoming more convincing that GRK2 could be considered as a potential therapeutic target in many fibrotic diseases.

Phei San Lai ◽  
Syed Muhammad Usama ◽  
Lik-Voon Kiew ◽  
Hong Boon Lee ◽  
Lip Yong Chung ◽  

2022 ◽  
Javier Martínez Pacheco ◽  
Limei Song ◽  
Victoria Berdion Gabarain ◽  
Juan Manuel Peralta ◽  
Tomás Urzúa Lehuedé ◽  

Root hairs (RH) are excellent model systems for studying cell size regulation since they elongate several hundred-fold their original size. Their growth is determined both by intrinsic and environmental signals. Although nutrients availability in the soil are key factors for a sustained plant growth, the molecular mechanisms underlying their perception and downstream signaling pathways remains unclear. Here, we identified that a low temperature triggers a strong RH cell elongation response involving the cell surface receptor kinase FERONIA (FER) and nutrient sensor TORC1 pathway. We found that FER is required to perceive limited nutrients availability caused by low temperature, to interacts with and activate TORC1-downstream components to trigger RH growth. Nitrates perceived and transported by NRT1.1 were found to mimic this growth response at low temperature. Our findings reveal a new molecular mechanism by which a central hub composed by FER-TORC1 controls RH cell elongation under low temperature.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Ke Xu ◽  
Joris Jourquin ◽  
Maria Fransiska Njo ◽  
Long Nguyen ◽  
Tom Beeckman ◽  

Leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs) play fundamental roles in cell-to-cell and plant-environment communication. LRR-RLKs can function as receptors perceiving endogenous or external ligands, or as coreceptors, which stabilize the complex, and enhance transduction of the intracellular signal. The LRR-RLK BAK1 is a coreceptor for different developmental and immunity pathways. In this article, we identified PXY-CORRELATED 3 (PXC3) as a BAK1-interacting LRR-RLK, which was previously reported to be transcribed in vascular tissues co-expressed with PHLOEM INTERCALATED WITH XYLEM (PXY), the receptor of the TDIF/CLE41 peptide. Characterization of pxc3 loss-of-function mutants revealed reduced hypocotyl stele width and vascular cells compared to wild type, indicating that PXC3 plays a role in the vascular development in Arabidopsis. Furthermore, our data suggest that PXC3 might function as a positive regulator of the CLE41/TDIF–TDR/PXY signaling pathway.

eLife ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Julien Gronnier ◽  
Christina M Franck ◽  
Martin Stegmann ◽  
Thomas A DeFalco ◽  
Alicia Abarca ◽  

Spatial partitioning is a propensity of biological systems orchestrating cell activities in space and time. The dynamic regulation of plasma membrane nano-environments has recently emerged as a key fundamental aspect of plant signaling, but the molecular components governing it are still mostly unclear. The receptor kinase FERONIA (FER) controls ligand-induced complex formation of the immune receptor kinase FLAGELLIN SENSING 2 (FLS2) with its co-receptor BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1-ASSOCIATED KINASE 1 (BAK1), and perception of the endogenous peptide hormone RAPID ALKALANIZATION FACTOR 23 (RALF23) by FER inhibits immunity. Here, we show that FER regulates the plasma membrane nanoscale organization of FLS2 and BAK1. Our study demonstrates that akin to FER, leucine-rich repeat (LRR) extensin proteins (LRXs) contribute to RALF23 responsiveness, regulate BAK1 nanoscale organization and immune signaling. Furthermore, RALF23 perception leads to rapid modulation of FLS2 and BAK1 nanoscale organization, and its inhibitory activity on immune signaling relies on FER kinase activity. Our results suggest that perception of RALF peptides by FER and LRXs actively modulates plasma membrane nanoscale organization to regulate cell surface signaling by other ligand-binding receptor kinases.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 395
Sung-Hwa Sohn ◽  
Hee Jung Sul ◽  
Bum Jun Kim ◽  
Hyeong Su Kim ◽  
Dae Young Zang

Tropomyosin receptor kinase (TRK) and receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK class VII) expression are important in many human diseases, especially cancers, including colorectal, lung, and gastric cancer. Using RNA sequencing analysis, we evaluated the mRNA expression and mutation profiles of gastric cancer patients with neurotropic tropomyosin receptor kinase (NTRK) 1-3 overexpression (defined as a ≥2.0-fold change). Furthermore, we screened eight TRK inhibitors in NCI-N87, SNU16, MKN28, MKN7, and AGS cells. Among these inhibitors, entrectinib showed the highest inhibitory activity; therefore, this drug was selected for analysis of its therapeutic mechanisms in gastric cancer. Entrectinib treatment induced apoptosis in NTRK1-3-expressing and VEGFR2-expressing NCI-N87 and AGS cells, but it had no effect on NTRK1-3-, VEGFR2-, TGFBR1-, and CD274-expressing MKN7 cells. SNU16 and MKN28 cells with low NTRK1-3 expression were not affected by entrectinib. Therefore, a mechanistic study was conducted in NCI-N87 (high expression of NTRK1-3 but mutation of NTRK3), AGS (high expression of NTRK1-3) and MKN28 (low expression of NTRK1-3) gastric cancer cell lines. Entrectinib treatment significantly reduced expression levels of phosphorylated NFκB, AKT, ERK, and β-catenin in NCI-N87 and AGS cells, whereas it upregulated the expression levels of ECAD in NCI-N87 cells. Together, these results suggest that entrectinib has anti-cancer activity not only in GC cells overexpressing pan NTRK but also in VEGFR2 GC cells via the inhibition of the pan NTRK and VEGFR signaling pathways.

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