cannabinoid receptor
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2022 ◽  
Vol 100 ◽  
pp. 103493
Pieter E. Oomen ◽  
Dominique Schori ◽  
Karsten Tögel-Lins ◽  
Dean Acreman ◽  
Sevag Chenorhokian ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Sam R. J. Hoare ◽  
Paul H. Tewson ◽  
Shivani Sachdev ◽  
Mark Connor ◽  
Thomas E. Hughes ◽  

Neurons integrate inputs over different time and space scales. Fast excitatory synapses at boutons (ms and μm), and slow modulation over entire dendritic arbors (seconds and mm) are all ultimately combined to produce behavior. Understanding the timing of signaling events mediated by G-protein-coupled receptors is necessary to elucidate the mechanism of action of therapeutics targeting the nervous system. Measuring signaling kinetics in live cells has been transformed by the adoption of fluorescent biosensors and dyes that convert biological signals into optical signals that are conveniently recorded by microscopic imaging or by fluorescence plate readers. Quantifying the timing of signaling has now become routine with the application of equations in familiar curve fitting software to estimate the rates of signaling from the waveform. Here we describe examples of the application of these methods, including (1) Kinetic analysis of opioid signaling dynamics and partial agonism measured using cAMP and arrestin biosensors; (2) Quantifying the signaling activity of illicit synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists measured using a fluorescent membrane potential dye; (3) Demonstration of multiplicity of arrestin functions from analysis of biosensor waveforms and quantification of the rates of these processes. These examples show how temporal analysis provides additional dimensions to enhance the understanding of GPCR signaling and therapeutic mechanisms in the nervous system.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Lester J. Rosario-Rodríguez ◽  
Yamil Gerena ◽  
Luis A. García-Requena ◽  
Luz J. Cartagena-Isern ◽  
Juan C. Cuadrado-Ruiz ◽  

AbstractHIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are prevalent despite combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), affecting 52% of people living with HIV. Our laboratory has demonstrated increased expression of cathepsin B (CATB) in postmortem brain tissue with HAND. Increased secretion of CATB from in vitro HIV-infected monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) induces neurotoxicity. Activation of cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2R) inhibits HIV-1 replication in macrophages and the neurotoxicity induced by viral proteins. However, it is unknown if CB2R agonists affect CATB secretion and neurotoxicity in HIV-infected MDM. We hypothesized that HIV-infected MDM exposed to CB2R agonists decrease CATB secretion and neurotoxicity. Primary MDM were inoculated with HIV-1ADA and treated with selective CB2R agonists JWH-133 and HU-308. HIV-1 p24 and CATB levels were determined from supernatants using ELISA. MDM were pre-treated with a selective CB2R antagonist SR144528 before JWH-133 treatment to determine if CB2R activation is responsible for the effects. Neuronal apoptosis was assessed using a TUNEL assay. Results show that both agonists reduce HIV-1 replication and CATB secretion from MDM in a time and dose-dependent manner and that CB2R activation is responsible for these effects. Finally, JWH-133 decreased HIV/MDM-CATB induced neuronal apoptosis. Our results suggest that agonists of CB2R represent a potential therapeutic strategy against HIV/MDM-induced neurotoxicity.

2022 ◽  
Daniel Divin ◽  
Mercedes Gomez Samblas ◽  
Nithya Kuttiyarthu Veetil ◽  
Eleni Voukali ◽  
Zuzana Swiderska ◽  

In vertebrates, an ancient duplication in the genes for cannabinoid receptors (CNRs) allowed the evolution of specialised endocannabinoid receptors expressed in the brain (CNR1) and the periphery (CNR2). While dominantly conserved throughout vertebrate phylogeny, our comparative genomic analysis suggests that certain taxa may have lost either the CNR1 regulator of neural processes or, more frequently, the CNR2 involved in immune regulation. Focussing on conspicuous CNR2 pseudogenization in parrots (Psittaciformes), a diversified crown lineage of cognitively-advanced birds, we highlight possible functional effects of such a loss. Parrots appear to have lost the CNR2 gene at at least two separate occasions due to chromosomal rearrangement. Using gene expression data from the brain and periphery of birds with experimentally-induced sterile inflammation, we compare CNR and inflammatory marker (interleukin 1 beta, IL1B) expression patterns in CNR2-deficient parrots (represented by the budgerigar, Melopsittacus undulatus and five other parrot species) with CNR2-intact passerines (represented by the zebra finch, Taeniopygia guttata). Though no significant changes in CNR expression were observed in either parrots or passerines during inflammation of the brain or periphery, we detected a significant up-regulation of IL1B expression in the brain after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) only in parrots. As our analysis failed to show evidence for selection on altered CNR1 functionality in parrots, compared to other birds, CNR1 is unlikely to be involved in compensation for CNR2 loss in modulation of the neuroimmune interaction. Thus, our results provide evidence for the functional importance of CNR2 pseudogenization for regulation of neuroinflammation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 226 (1) ◽  
pp. S407-S408
Sarah Shepard ◽  
Melissa Kozakiewicz ◽  
Jie Zhang ◽  
Mathew Jorgensen ◽  
Brian C. Brost

2022 ◽  
Vol 100 (S267) ◽  
Li Guo ◽  
Vy Luong ◽  
Aaron Gregson ◽  
David Baker ◽  
David Selwood ◽  

In Vivo ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 36 (1) ◽  
pp. 227-232

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 202
Estilla Zsófia Tóth ◽  
Felicia Gyöngyvér Szabó ◽  
Ágnes Kandrács ◽  
Noémi Orsolya Molnár ◽  
Gábor Nagy ◽  

Inhibitory neurons innervating the perisomatic region of cortical excitatory principal cells are known to control the emergence of several physiological and pathological synchronous events, including epileptic interictal spikes. In humans, little is known about their role in synchrony generation, although their changes in epilepsy have been thoroughly investigated. This paper demonstraits how parvalbumin (PV)- and type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R)-positive perisomatic interneurons innervate pyramidal cell bodies, and their role in synchronous population events spontaneously emerging in the human epileptic and non-epileptic neocortex, in vitro. Quantitative electron microscopy showed that the overall, PV+ and CB1R+ somatic inhibitory inputs remained unchanged in focal cortical epilepsy. On the contrary, the size of PV-stained synapses increased, and their number decreased in epileptic samples, in synchrony generating regions. Pharmacology demonstrated—in conjunction with the electron microscopy—that although both perisomatic cell types participate, PV+ cells have stronger influence on the generation of population activity in epileptic samples. The somatic inhibitory input of neocortical pyramidal cells remained almost intact in epilepsy, but the larger and consequently more efficient somatic synapses might account for a higher synchrony in this neuron population. This, together with epileptic hyperexcitability, might make a cortical region predisposed to generate or participate in hypersynchronous events.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
pp. 64
Antonella Capozzi ◽  
Daniela Caissutti ◽  
Vincenzo Mattei ◽  
Francesca Gado ◽  
Stefano Martellucci ◽  

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) exerts immunosuppressive effects, which are mostly mediated by cannabinoid receptor 2 (CBR2), whose expression on leukocytes is higher than CBR1, mainly localized in the brain. Targeted CBR2 activation could limit inflammation, avoiding CBR1-related psychoactive effects. Herein, we evaluated in vitro the biological activity of a novel, selective and high-affinity CBR2 agonist, called JT11, studying its potential CBR2-mediated anti-inflammatory effect. Trypan Blue and MTT assays were used to test the cytotoxic and anti-proliferative effect of JT11 in Jurkat cells. Its pro-apoptotic activity was investigated analyzing both cell cycle and poly PARP cleavage. Finally, we evaluated its impact on LPS-induced ERK1/2 and NF-kB-p65 activation, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 release in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy donors. Selective CB2R antagonist SR144528 and CBR2 knockdown were used to further verify the selectivity of JT11. We confirmed selective CBR2 activation by JT11. JT11 regulated cell viability and proliferation through a CBR2-dependent mechanism in Jurkat cells, exhibiting a mild pro-apoptotic activity. Finally, it reduced LPS-induced ERK1/2 and NF-kB-p65 phosphorylation and pro-inflammatory cytokines release in human PBMCs, proving to possess in vitro anti-inflammatory properties. JT11 as CBR2 ligands could enhance ECS immunoregulatory activity and our results support the view that therapeutic strategies targeting CBR2 signaling could be promising for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases.

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