g protein coupled
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Nan Li ◽  
Shan Shan ◽  
Xiu-Qin Li ◽  
Ting-Ting Chen ◽  
Meng Qi ◽  
...  

G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2), an important subtype of GRKs, specifically phosphorylates agonist-activated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Besides, current research confirms that it participates in multiple regulation of diverse cells via a non-phosphorylated pathway, including interacting with various non-receptor substrates and binding partners. Fibrosis is a common pathophysiological phenomenon in the repair process of many tissues due to various pathogenic factors such as inflammation, injury, drugs, etc. The characteristics of fibrosis are the activation of fibroblasts leading to myofibroblast proliferation and differentiation, subsequent aggerate excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM). Then, a positive feedback loop is occurred between tissue stiffness caused by ECM and fibroblasts, ultimately resulting in distortion of organ architecture and function. At present, GRK2, which has been described as a multifunctional protein, regulates copious signaling pathways under pathophysiological conditions correlated with fibrotic diseases. Along with GRK2-mediated regulation, there are diverse effects on the growth and apoptosis of different cells, inflammatory response and deposition of ECM, which are essential in organ fibrosis progression. This review is to highlight the relationship between GRK2 and fibrotic diseases based on recent research. It is becoming more convincing that GRK2 could be considered as a potential therapeutic target in many fibrotic diseases.


2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Author(s):  
Sam R. J. Hoare ◽  
Paul H. Tewson ◽  
Shivani Sachdev ◽  
Mark Connor ◽  
Thomas E. Hughes ◽  
...  

Neurons integrate inputs over different time and space scales. Fast excitatory synapses at boutons (ms and μm), and slow modulation over entire dendritic arbors (seconds and mm) are all ultimately combined to produce behavior. Understanding the timing of signaling events mediated by G-protein-coupled receptors is necessary to elucidate the mechanism of action of therapeutics targeting the nervous system. Measuring signaling kinetics in live cells has been transformed by the adoption of fluorescent biosensors and dyes that convert biological signals into optical signals that are conveniently recorded by microscopic imaging or by fluorescence plate readers. Quantifying the timing of signaling has now become routine with the application of equations in familiar curve fitting software to estimate the rates of signaling from the waveform. Here we describe examples of the application of these methods, including (1) Kinetic analysis of opioid signaling dynamics and partial agonism measured using cAMP and arrestin biosensors; (2) Quantifying the signaling activity of illicit synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists measured using a fluorescent membrane potential dye; (3) Demonstration of multiplicity of arrestin functions from analysis of biosensor waveforms and quantification of the rates of these processes. These examples show how temporal analysis provides additional dimensions to enhance the understanding of GPCR signaling and therapeutic mechanisms in the nervous system.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Eitan Margulis ◽  
Yuli Slavutsky ◽  
Tatjana Lang ◽  
Mike Behrens ◽  
Yuval Benjamini ◽  
...  

Bitterness is an aversive cue elicited by thousands of chemically diverse compounds. Bitter taste may prevent consumption of foods and jeopardize drug compliance. The G protein-coupled receptors for bitter taste, TAS2Rs, have species-dependent number of subtypes and varying expression levels in extraoral tissues. Molecular recognition by TAS2R subtypes is physiologically important, and presents a challenging case study for ligand-receptor matchmaking. Inspired by hybrid recommendation systems, we developed a new set of similarity features, and created the BitterMatch algorithm that predicts associations of ligands to receptors with ~80% precision at ~50% recall. Associations for several compounds were tested in-vitro, resulting in 80% precision and 42% recall. The encouraging performance was achieved by including receptor properties and integrating experimentally determined ligand-receptor associations with chemical ligand-to-ligand similarities. BitterMatch can predict off-targets for bitter drugs, identify novel ligands and guide flavor design. Inclusion of neighbor-informed similarities improves as experimental data mounts, and provides a generalizable framework for molecule-biotarget matching.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Dylan Scott Eiger ◽  
Noelia Boldizsar ◽  
Christopher Cole Honeycutt ◽  
Julia Gardner ◽  
Stephen Kirchner ◽  
...  

Some G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) ligands act as biased agonists which preferentially activate specific signaling transducers over others. Although GPCRs are primarily found at the plasma membrane, GPCRs can traffic to and signal from many subcellular compartments. Here, we determine that differential subcellular signaling contributes to the biased signaling generated by three endogenous ligands of the chemokine GPCR CXCR3. The signaling profile of CXCR3 changed as it trafficked from the plasma membrane to endosomes in a ligand-specific manner. Endosomal signaling was critical for biased activation of G proteins, β-arrestins, and ERK1/2. In CD8+ T cells, the chemokines promoted unique transcriptional responses predicted to regulate inflammatory pathways. In a mouse model of contact hypersensitivity, β-arrestin-biased CXCR3-mediated inflammation was dependent on receptor internalization. Our work demonstrates that differential subcellular signaling is critical to the overall biased response observed at CXCR3, which has important implications for drugs targeting chemokine receptors and other GPCRs.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Carolina Manosalva ◽  
John Quiroga ◽  
Alejandra I. Hidalgo ◽  
Pablo Alarcón ◽  
Nicolás Anseoleaga ◽  
...  

During an inflammatory process, shift in the cellular metabolism associated with an increase in extracellular acidification are well-known features. This pH drop in the inflamed tissue is largely attributed to the presence of lactate by an increase in glycolysis. In recent years, evidence has accumulated describing the role of lactate in inflammatory processes; however, there are differences as to whether lactate can currently be considered a pro- or anti-inflammatory mediator. Herein, we review these recent advances on the pleiotropic effects of lactate on the inflammatory process. Taken together, the evidence suggests that lactate could exert differential effects depending on the metabolic status, cell type in which the effects of lactate are studied, and the pathological process analyzed. Additionally, various targets, including post-translational modifications, G-protein coupled receptor and transcription factor activation such as NF-κB and HIF-1, allow lactate to modulate signaling pathways that control the expression of cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules, and several enzymes associated with immune response and metabolism. Altogether, this would explain its varied effects on inflammatory processes beyond its well-known role as a waste product of metabolism.


Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 533
Author(s):  
Małgorzata Jarończyk ◽  
Jarosław Walory

Antidepressants target a variety of proteins in the central nervous system (CNS), the most important belonging to the family of G-protein coupled receptors and the family of neurotransmitter transporters. The increasing number of crystallographic structures of these proteins have significantly contributed to the knowledge of their mechanism of action, as well as to the design of new drugs. Several computational approaches such as molecular docking, molecular dynamics, and virtual screening are useful for elucidating the mechanism of drug action and are important for drug design. This review is a survey of molecular targets for antidepressants in the CNS and computer based strategies to discover novel compounds with antidepressant activity.


2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Naoki Harada ◽  
Mai Okuyama ◽  
Yoshiaki Teraoka ◽  
Yumi Arahori ◽  
Yoh Shinmori ◽  
...  

AbstractThe identification of molecular targets of bioactive food components is important to understand the mechanistic aspect of their physiological functions. Here, we have developed a screening system that enables us to determine the activation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) by food components and have identified GPR55 as a target for curcumin. Curcumin activated GPR55 and induced serum-response element- and serum-response factor-mediated transcription, which were inhibited by Rho kinase and GPR55 antagonists. Both the methoxy group and the heptadienone moiety of curcumin were required for GPR55 activation. The F1905.47 residue of GPR55 was important for the interaction with curcumin. The curcumin-induced secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 in GLUTag cells was inhibited by a GPR55 antagonist. These results indicate that expression screening is a useful system to identify GPCRs as targets of food components and strongly suggest that curcumin activates GPR55 as an agonist, which is involved in the physiological function of curcumin.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ian Winfield ◽  
Kerry Barkan ◽  
Sarah Routledge ◽  
Nathan J. Robertson ◽  
Matthew Harris ◽  
...  

The first intracellular loop (ICL1) of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) has received little attention, although there is evidence that, with the 8th helix (H8), it is involved in early conformational changes following receptor activation as well as contacting the G protein β subunit. In class B1 GPCRs, the distal part of ICL1 contains a conserved R12.48KLRCxR2.46b motif that extends into the base of the second transmembrane helix; this is weakly conserved as a [R/H]12.48KL[R/H] motif in class A GPCRs. In the current study, the role of ICL1 and H8 in signaling through cAMP, iCa2+ and ERK1/2 has been examined in two class B1 GPCRs, using mutagenesis and molecular dynamics. Mutations throughout ICL1 can either enhance or disrupt cAMP production by CGRP at the CGRP receptor. Alanine mutagenesis identified subtle differences with regard elevation of iCa2+, with the distal end of the loop being particularly sensitive. ERK1/2 activation displayed little sensitivity to ICL1 mutation. A broadly similar pattern was observed with the glucagon receptor, although there were differences in significance of individual residues. Extending the study revealed that at the CRF1 receptor, an insertion in ICL1 switched signaling bias between iCa2+ and cAMP. Molecular dynamics suggested that changes in ICL1 altered the conformation of ICL2 and the H8/TM7 junction (ICL4). For H8, alanine mutagenesis showed the importance of E3908.49b for all three signal transduction pathways, for the CGRP receptor, but mutations of other residues largely just altered ERK1/2 activation. Thus, ICL1 may modulate GPCR bias via interactions with ICL2, ICL4 and the Gβ subunit.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Karel Miettinen ◽  
Nattawat Leelahakorn ◽  
Aldo Almeida ◽  
Yong Zhao ◽  
Lukas Hansen ◽  
...  

Abstract The decriminalization of cannabis and the growing interest in cannabinoids as therapeutics require efficient methods to discover novel compounds and monitor cannabinoid levels in human samples and products. However, current methods are limited by the structural diversity of the active compounds. Here, we construct a G-protein coupled receptor-based yeast whole-cell biosensor, optimize it to achieve high sensitivity and dynamic range, and prove its effectiveness in three real-life applications. First, we screen a library of compounds to discover two novel agonists and four antagonists and demonstrate that our biosensor can democratize GPCR drug discovery by enabling low-cost high-throughput analysis using open-source automation. Subsequently, we bioprospect 54 plants to discover a novel phytocannabinoid, dugesialactone. Finally, we develop a robust portable device, analyze body-fluid samples, and confidently detect illicit synthetic drugs like “Spice”/“K2”. Taking advantage of the extensive sensing repertoire of GPCRs, this technology can be extended to detect numerous other compounds.


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