storage tank
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Praveen K. Malhotra ◽  
Taylor Harper ◽  
Nelson Tonui ◽  
David Feser

Meher Deepak Narayanasetti ◽  
Amiya Pandit ◽  
Kishore Chandra Biswal

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 7
Misri Gozan ◽  
Imam Paryanto ◽  
Muhammad Arif Darmawan ◽  
Muhammad Sahlan ◽  
Heri Hermansyah ◽  

Precipitate in B20 fuel stored in storage tanks can accumulate at the bottom level of the tank and affect the fuel filter, clogging in the fuel distribution and engine system. This study examines the precipitate formation prediction in B20 fuel based on the monoglyceride content in biodiesel. This research used a modified CSFT method of ASTM D7501 for the precipitation test. Monopalmitin was added to biodiesel with a variation of monoglyceride content. Each biodiesel sample was then blended with petroleum diesel fuel to produce two groups of samples. Each sample was separately soaked in the cooling chamber at constant and room temperature for 21 days. The bottom layer of each B20 fuel sample stored in the measuring cylinder was then pipetted and filtered, washed with petro-ether, vacuum-dried, and weighed for a constant amount of precipitate retained on the filter. The simulation results show that the ratios between the amount of collected precipitate at the bottom layer of the 2-liter measuring cylinder and the total amount of collected precipitate for the 2-liter measuring cylinder increased with the monoglyceride content biodiesel. This ratio was used to predict the amount of accumulated sludge for a given volume of B20 fuel loaded into the storage tank. This study shows the effect of monoglyceride content on the precipitation behaviour in the storage tank concerning general tank storage dimension parameters and B20 loading frequency. This approach can be applied to estimate the sludge removal frequency for biodiesel storage.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 509
Filip Patrčević ◽  
Damir Dović ◽  
Ivan Horvat ◽  
Petar Filipović

This paper presents the methodology for conducting a cost-optimal energy performance calculation of a solar hot water system, used for space heating and domestic hot water needs. The calculation is based on dynamic hourly methods, according to the new Energy Performance of Buildings’ (EPB) set of standards EN 15316:2017, and a revision of the standard EN 15316-5:2017 from the year 2021, dealing with storage-tank water temperature calculations. The paper provides proposals for modifications to these newly introduced standards, in order to overcome the observed ambiguities and shortcomings. The calculation of annual energy performance of a building was performed on an hourly basis over a year for the reference of an nZEB multi-apartment building, for a climate area of the city of Zagreb, taking into account water temperature change in the layers of the storage tank connected to solar collectors and hot water boilers. The cost-optimal solution was then determined by varying individual parameters of the building technical system. The influence of these parameters on the energy efficiency of the building was analyzed in detail. Furthermore, the results were compared against those obtained by the Croatian calculation algorithm based on the previous set of EPB standards, EN 15316:2008, currently used EU-wide for the energy performance certification of buildings. The results indicated that the calculation methods of the present algorithm underestimated the consumption of building primary energy by 12%. The energy delivered by solar collectors was underestimated by 18%.

Crystals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 92
Wencai Liu ◽  
Jianchun Fan ◽  
Jin Yang

In terms of the structural health inspection of storage tanks by ultrasonic guided wave technology, many scholars are currently focusing on the tanks’ floor and walls, while little research has been conducted on storage tank roofs. However, the roof of a storage tank is prone to corrosion because of its complex structure and unique working environment. For this purpose, this paper proposes a reflection/transmission signal amplitude ratio (RTAR) coefficient method for corrosion depth assessment. We studied the relationship between the RTAR coefficient, the corrosion depth, and the guided wave frequency to establish a depth assessment model. More importantly, unlike the traditional reflection coefficient method, the characteristics of guided wave signals, including the propagation and attenuation, are introduced in this model for accurate assessment. To eliminate the interference of residual vibration and improve the detection accuracy of defects, we built a corrosion detection system by using piezoelectric sensors and carried out field tests to verify the performance of the proposed method. We demonstrate that corrosion defects with a minimum depth of 0.2 mm can be quantitatively evaluated.

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 143
Marwan Kheimi ◽  
Shokry M. Abdelaziz

A new daily water balance model is developed and tested in this paper. The new model has a similar model structure to the existing probability distributed rainfall runoff models (PDM), such as HyMOD. However, the model utilizes a new distribution function for soil water storage capacity, which leads to the SCS (Soil Conservation Service) curve number (CN) method when the initial soil water storage is set to zero. Therefore, the developed model is a unification of the PDM and CN methods and is called the PDM–CN model in this paper. Besides runoff modeling, the calculation of daily evaporation in the model is also dependent on the distribution function, since the spatial variability of soil water storage affects the catchment-scale evaporation. The generated runoff is partitioned into direct runoff and groundwater recharge, which are then routed through quick and slow storage tanks, respectively. Total discharge is the summation of quick flow from the quick storage tank and base flow from the slow storage tank. The new model with 5 parameters is applied to 92 catchments for simulating daily streamflow and evaporation and compared with AWMB, SACRAMENTO, and SIMHYD models. The performance of the model is slightly better than HyMOD but is not better compared with the 14-parameter model (SACRAMENTO) in the calibration, and does not perform as well in the validation period as the 7-parameter model (SIMHYD) in some areas, based on the NSE values. The linkage between the PDM–CN model and long-term water balance model is also presented, and a two-parameter mean annual water balance equation is derived from the proposed PDM–CN model.

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