visual displays
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2021 ◽  
pp. 000-000
Justin St. P. Walsh ◽  
Alice C. Gorman ◽  
Wendy Salmond

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Dana A. Cusano ◽  
David Paton ◽  
Michael J. Noad ◽  
Rebecca A. Dunlop

Intraspecific conflict can be costly; therefore, many species engage in ritualized contests composed of several stages. Each stage is typically characterized by different levels of aggression, arousal, and physical conflict. During these different levels of “intensity,” animals benefit from communicating potential information related to features such as resource holding potential, relative fighting ability, level of aggression, intent (i.e., fight or flight), and whether or not the competitor currently holds the resource (e.g., a receptive female). This information may be conveyed using both visual displays and a complex acoustic repertoire containing fixed (e.g., age, sex, and body size) and flexible information (e.g., motivation or arousal). Calls that contain fixed information are generally considered “discrete” or stereotyped, while calls that convey flexible information are more “graded,” existing along an acoustic continuum. The use of displays and calls, and the potential information they convey, is likely dependent on factors like intensity level. The breeding system of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) involves intense male competition for access to a relatively limited number of breeding females (the resource). Here, we investigated the behavior and acoustic repertoire of competitive groups of humpback whales to determine if an increase in intensity level of the group was correlated with an increase in the complexity of the vocal repertoire. We categorized the behavior of humpback whales in competitive groups into three mutually exclusive stages from low to high intensity. While discrete calls were infrequent compared to graded calls overall, their use was highest in “low” and “moderate” intensity groups, which may indicate that this stage of contest is important for assessing the relative resource holding potential of competitors. In contrast, visual displays, call rates, and the use of graded call types, were highest during “high intensity” competitive groups. This suggests that flexible information may be more important in “high intensity” levels as males continue to assess the motivation and intent of competitors while actively engaged in costly conflict. We have shown that the relatively complex social call repertoire and visual displays of humpback whales in competitive groups likely functions to mediate frequently changing within-group relationships.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Nicolò Dozio ◽  
Federica Marcolin ◽  
Giulia Wally Scurati ◽  
Francesca Nonis ◽  
Luca Ulrich ◽  

AbstractDespite the great potential of Virtual Reality (VR) to arouse emotions, there are no VR affective databases available as it happens for pictures, videos, and sounds. In this paper, we describe the validation of ten affective interactive Virtual Environments (VEs) designed to be used in Virtual Reality. These environments are related to five emotions. The testing phase included using two different experimental setups to deliver the overall experience. The setup did not include any immersive VR technology, because of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, but the VEs were designed to run on stereoscopic visual displays. We collected measures related to the participants’ emotional experience based on six discrete emotional categories plus neutrality and we included an assessment of the sense of presence related to the different experiences. The results showed how the scenarios can be differentiated according to the emotion aroused. Finally, the comparison between the two experimental setups demonstrated high reliability of the experience and strong adaptability of the scenarios to different contexts of use.

2021 ◽  
pp. 510-520
Matthew T. McCrudden ◽  
Peggy N. Van Meter

Steven Landry ◽  
Bobbie Seppelt ◽  
Luca Russo ◽  
Martin Krampell

As advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) increase in functionality, so do the functional requirements of their visual displays to communicate status and settings. Drivers who misinterpret in-vehicle displays may be more likely to misuse or avoid using ADAS, negating the potential safety benefits. A novel evaluation method is proposed and applied to the (at the time of surveying) latest Volvo instrument cluster. An online survey was completed by 838 Volvo car owners with varying levels of familiarity with adaptive cruise control and pilot assist. Results suggest that the concepts of a system being “available but not on” or “on but not actively providing support” can be difficult for novice users to recognize, resulting in a mode or state confusion. However, more experienced users were less likely to make these types of errors. The assessment method of providing users with partially masked images shows promise as a useful tool for evaluating comprehension of ADAS in-vehicle visual displays.

Vaccine ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 39 (43) ◽  
pp. 6407-6413
Helge Giese ◽  
Hansjörg Neth ◽  
Wolfgang Gaissmaier

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 (3) ◽  
pp. 189-197
V. I. Nazarenko ◽  
I. M. Cherednichenko ◽  
S. A. Sokurenko ◽  
N. S. Tihonova ◽  

Behaviour ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Nigel K. Anderson ◽  
Henry D. Legett ◽  
Ikkyu Aihara ◽  
Ximena E. Bernal

Abstract We report a visual display, leg-stretching, in the nocturnal Ryukyu Kajika frog (Buergeria japonica) on Iriomote Island in southern Okinawa, Japan. This visual display is produced by males before, during, or after a vocalization and involves the extension of one or both hindlimbs outwards at substrate level. Leg-stretches in this species are performed during male-male agonistic interactions in choruses, and almost exclusively in concert with aggressive vocalizations. These observations are one of the first reports of visual displays for the Rhacophoridae family and provide insights into why visual displays evolve in frogs, especially in nocturnal species. We discuss our observations in the context of underlying mechanisms and selective pressures driving the evolution of anuran visual displays.

2021 ◽  
Vol 62 (9) ◽  
Frieder Reichenzer ◽  
Mike Schneider ◽  
Alois Herkommer

Abstract The use of electronic visual displays for background-oriented schlieren allows for the quick change of the reference images. In this study, we show that the quality of synthetic and background-oriented schlieren images can be improved by acquiring a set of images with different reference images and generating a median displacement field from it. To explore potential benefits, we studied different background changing strategies and their effect on the quality of the evaluation of the displacement field via artificial and experimental image distortions. Graphic abstract

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