This study aims is to establish a small system of text-independent recognition of speakers for a
relatively small group of speakers at a sound stage. The fascinating justification for the International Space Station
(ISS) to detect if the astronauts are speaking at a specific time has influenced the difficulty. In this work, we employed
Machine Learning Applications. Accordingly, we used the Direct Deep Neural Network (DNN)-based approach, in
which the posterior opportunities of the output layer are utilized to determine the speaker’s presence. In line with
the small footprint design objective, a simple DNN model with only sufficient hidden units or sufficient hidden
units per layer was designed, thereby reducing the cost of parameters through intentional preparation to avoid the
normal overfitting problem and optimize the algorithmic aspects, such as context-based training, activation functions,
validation, and learning rate. Two commercially available databases, namely, TIMIT clean speech and HTIMIT multihandset communication database and TIMIT noise-added data framework, were tested for this reference model that
we developed using four sound categories at three distinct signal-to-noise ratios. Briefly, we used a dynamic pruning
method in which the conditions of all layers are simultaneously pruned, and the pruning mechanism is reassigned.
The usefulness of this approach was evaluated on all the above contact databases
AbstractAnemia in astronauts has been noted since the first space missions, but the mechanisms contributing to anemia in space flight have remained unclear. Here, we show that space flight is associated with persistently increased levels of products of hemoglobin degradation, carbon monoxide in alveolar air and iron in serum, in 14 astronauts throughout their 6-month missions onboard the International Space Station. One year after landing, erythrocytic effects persisted, including increased levels of hemolysis, reticulocytosis and hemoglobin. These findings suggest that the destruction of red blood cells, termed hemolysis, is a primary effect of microgravity in space flight and support the hypothesis that the anemia associated with space flight is a hemolytic condition that should be considered in the screening and monitoring of both astronauts and space tourists.
Nowadays, there is tremendous growth in the Internet of Things (IoT) applications in our everyday lives. The proliferation of smart devices, sensors technology, and the Internet makes it possible to communicate between the digital and physical world seamlessly for distributed data collection, communication, and processing of several applications dynamically. However, it is a challenging task to monitor and track objects in real-time due to the distinct characteristics of the IoT system, e.g., scalability, mobility, and resource-limited nature of the devices. In this paper, we address the significant issue of IoT object tracking in real time. We propose a system called ‘TrackInk’ to demonstrate our idea. TrackInk will be capable of pointing toward and taking pictures of visible satellites in the night sky, including but not limited to the International Space Station (ISS) or the moon. Data will be collected from sensors to determine the system’s geographical location along with its 3D orientation, allowing for the system to be moved. Additionally, TrackInk will communicate with and send data to ThingSpeak for further cloud-based systems and data analysis. Our proposed system is lightweight, highly scalable, and performs efficiently in a resource-limited environment. We discuss a detailed system’s architecture and show the performance results using a real-world hardware-based experimental setup.
Astronauts are required to maintain optimal neurobehavioral functioning despite chronic exposure to the stressors and challenges of spaceflight. Sleep of adequate quality and duration is fundamental to neurobehavioral functioning, however astronauts commonly experience short sleep durations in spaceflight (<6 h). As humans embark on long-duration space exploration missions, there is an outstanding need to identify the consequences of sleep deficiency in spaceflight on neurobehavioral functions. Therefore, we conducted a longitudinal study that examined the sleep-wake behaviors, neurobehavioral functions, and ratings of stress and workload of N=24 astronauts before, during, and after 6-month missions aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The computerized, Reaction SelfTest (RST), gathered astronaut report of sleep-wake behaviors, stress, workload, and somatic behavioral states; the RST also objectively assessed vigilant attention (i.e., Psychomotor Vigilance Test-Brief). Data collection began 180 days before launch, continued every 4 days in-flight aboard the ISS, and up to 90 days post-landing, which produced N=2,856 RSTs. Consistent with previous ISS studies, astronauts reported sleeping ~6.5 h in-flight. The adverse consequences of short sleep were observed across neurobehavioral functions, where sleep durations <6 h were associated with significant reductions in psychomotor response speed, elevated stress, and higher workload. Sleep durations <5 h were associated with elevated negative somatic behavioral states. Furthermore, longer sleep durations had beneficial effects on astronaut neurobehavioral functions. Taken together, our findings highlight the importance of sleep for the maintenance of neurobehavioral functioning and as with humans on Earth, astronauts would likely benefit from interventions that promote sleep duration and quality.
is ubiquitous in nature, including the anthropogenically contaminated extreme environments. Members of the
genus have been identified as potential candidates for space biomining beyond earth.
The first European COVID-19 infection was recorded in February 2020, and Poland followed in mid-March. Restrictions were imposed on traveling between states and using public space. These movement restrictions forced a search for new, often innovative, forms of tourism. Google Earth virtual reality (VR), Google Street View, and the Chernobyl VR Project are just some of the selected opportunities to create virtual tours. Different activities using VR mean that people can experience the illusion of travelling in time and space, outside of their everyday surroundings, in a digitally constructed three-dimensional (3D) environment, for cognition or entertainment. Therefore, this study aimed to present virtual and space tourism as new traveling trends during various crise,s such as health, economic, etc. A diagnostic survey with a developed questionnaire was conducted in June and July 2021 in Poland. A total of 564 fully answered responses were collected from randomly selected respondents. We found that around 82% of Polish people were aware of VR technology, and 70% believed that new technologies determine VR tourism development. VR presents the possibility of travelling to places that no longer exist in their original form, but have been reconstructed only in VR. Around 75% of the respondents agreed that VR tourism plays an essential role in tourism promotion in Poland and throughout the world. Moreover, VR and augmented tourism lets us visit fictitious and dangerous, politically restricted, and geographically as well as economically difficult destinations. For example, our results revealed that many people want to experience North Korea, the USA, Antarctica, Syria, etc. At the same time, people recommended the NASA space station as a visiting destination using VR and augmented reality. VR offers an alternative form of tourism during crises and pandemics such as COVID-19. We found over 26% of the respondents were satisfied with contemporary tourists’ cognitional needs during VR sightseeing. More than 87% of the respondents believed that VR tourism cannot substitute real-world tourism in the long run. However, VR tourism will be more beneficial for developing countries facing difficulties in economic aspects, and easier than attaining visas to enter developed countries. Furthermore, virtual sightseeing may also constitute an alternative for people who are disabled or sick, and who cannot undertake the effort of active tourism and explore tourist resources of the world on their own.
AbstractDC microgrids (DCMGs) integrate and coordinate various DC distribution generation units including various renewable energy sources and battery storage systems, and have been used in satellites, the International Space Station, telecom power stations, computer power supplies, electric aircraft, and electric ships. However, the presence of constant power loads (CPLs) can cause instability in DCMGs. Thus, this paper reviews the stabilization techniques that can resolve instability caused by CPLs, as well as various parameters of CPLs, such as bandwidth, and the frequency of the CPLs that can stabilize the DCMGs. It also discusses recent trends and future work in finding stability limits using the parameters of CPLs. It should be useful for directing research towards appropriate mathematical and experimental approaches for the stability of DCMGs with CPLs.
Maintaining crew health and safety are essential goals for long-term human missions to space. Attaining these goals requires the development of methods and materials for sustaining the crew’s health and safety. Paramount is microbiological monitoring and contamination reduction. Microbial biofilms are of special concern, because they can cause damage to spaceflight equipment and are difficult to eliminate due to their increased resistance to antibiotics and disinfectants. The introduction of antimicrobial surfaces for medical, pharmaceutical and industrial purposes has shown a unique potential for reducing and preventing biofilm formation. This article describes the development process of ESA’s BIOFILMS experiment, that will evaluate biofilm formation on various antimicrobial surfaces under spaceflight conditions. These surfaces will be composed of different metals with and without specified surface texture modifications. Staphylococcus capitis subsp. capitis, Cupriavidus metallidurans and Acinetobacter radioresistens are biofilm forming organisms that have been chosen as model organisms. The BIOFILMS experiment will study the biofilm formation potential of these organisms in microgravity on the International Space Station on inert surfaces (stainless steel AISI 304) as well as antimicrobial active copper (Cu) based metals that have undergone specific surface modification by Ultrashort Pulsed Direct Laser Interference Patterning (USP-DLIP). Data collected in 1 x g has shown that these surface modifications enhance the antimicrobial activity of Cu based metals. In the scope of this, the interaction between the surfaces and bacteria, which is highly determined by topography and surface chemistry, will be investigated. The data generated will be indispensable for the future selection of antimicrobial materials in support of human- and robotic-associated activities in space exploration.