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2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Yaser Masoumi-Ardakani ◽  
Hamid Najafipour ◽  
Hamid Reza Nasri ◽  
Soheil Aminizadeh ◽  
Shirin Jafari ◽  

Objectives. Hypertension (HTN) is one of the most important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Despite advances in treatment and control of HTN, the prevalence of HTN is still increasing. MitoQ is a supplement that acts on mitochondria and attenuates reactive oxygen species (ROS), which plays an important role in cardiovascular health. miRNAs play an important role in the pathophysiology of HTN. We evaluated the effects of MitoQ supplementation and endurance training (ET), alone and in combination, on functional indices of the heart and serum levels of miR-126, miR-27a, antioxidants, and NO, in patients with HTN. Methods. In a double-blind randomized clinical trial, 52 male participants (age 40-55 years) were randomly divided into four groups ( n = 13 ) of placebo, MitoQ (20 mg/day, oral), ET (cycle ergometer, moderate intensity, 40-60% VO2 peak, heart rate 120-140 b/min, 45 min a day, three days/week for six weeks), and MitoQ+ET. Cardiac function indices were assessed by echocardiography before and after interventions. Results. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) significantly decreased in all intervention groups ( P < 0.001 ) while DBP ( P < 0.01 ) and LV hypertrophy ( P < 0.05 ) were significantly decreased only in the MitoQ+ET group. Serum levels of SOD, GPx, and NO and the level of miR-126 significantly increased in all treatment groups, while miR-27a reduced in the ET ( P < 0.05 ) and MitoQ+ET ( P < 0.01 ) groups. Conclusions. Compared to MitoQ and ET alone, their combination has more prominent improving effects on cardiac health and amelioration of BP in the patients with HTN. These effects are through miR-126 and miR-27a modulation and ameliorating mitochondrial ROS production.

Panagiotis Ferentinos ◽  
Costas Tsakirides ◽  
Michelle Swainson ◽  
Adam Davison ◽  
Marrissa Martyn-St James ◽  

AbstractCirculating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) contribute to vascular repair and their monitoring could have prognostic clinical value. Exercise is often prescribed for the management of cardiometabolic diseases, however, it is not fully understood how it regulates EPCs. Objectives: to systematically examine the acute and chronic effects of different exercise modalities on circulating EPCs in patients with cardiovascular and metabolic disease. Methods: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines were followed. Results: six electronic databases and reference lists of eligible studies were searched to April 2021. Thirty-six trials met the inclusion criteria including 1731 participants. Acute trials: in chronic heart failure (CHF), EPC mobilisation was acutely increased after high intensity interval or moderate intensity continuous exercise training, while findings were inconclusive after a cardiopulmonary cycling exercise test. Maximal exercise tests acutely increased EPCs in ischaemic or revascularized coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. In peripheral arterial disease (PAD), EPC levels increased up to 24 h post-exercise. In patients with compromised metabolic health, EPC mobilisation was blunted after a single exercise session. Chronic trials: in CHF and acute coronary syndrome, moderate intensity continuous protocols, with or without resistance exercise or calisthenics, increased EPCs irrespective of EPC identification phenotype. Findings were equivocal in CAD regardless of exercise mode, while in severe PAD disease EPCs increased. High intensity interval training increased EPCs in hypertensive metabolic syndrome and heart failure reduced ejection fraction. Conclusion: the clinical condition and exercise modality influence the degree of EPC mobilisation and magnitude of EPC increases in the long term. Graphical abstract 

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Isaac D. Smith ◽  
Leanna M. Ross ◽  
Josi R. Gabaldon ◽  
Nicholas Holdgate ◽  
Carl F. Pieper ◽  

Objective: Gout is a crystal-induced inflammatory arthritis caused by elevated uric acid. Physical activity has the potential to reduce serum uric acid (SUA), thus improving the disease burden of gout. In this study, we examined the association of objectively-measured physical activity and SUA.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using survey, laboratory, and accelerometer data from the 2003–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). SUA concentrations (mg/dL) were obtained during an initial exam, and then physical activity (kCal/day) was measured with 7 days of ActiGraph accelerometry in participants (n = 3,475) representative of the ambulatory, non-institutionalized US civilian population. Regression, including restricted cubic splines, was used to assess the relation of physical activity and SUA in bivariate and adjusted models. Covariates included age, gender, race/ethnicity, alcohol use, body mass index, renal function, and urate-lowering therapy.Results: In the bivariate model, physical activity was correlated with SUA concentrations and included a non-linear component (p &lt; 0.01). In the adjusted model, linear splines were employed with a node at the SUA nadir of 5.37mg/dL; this occurred at 703 kCal/day of physical activity. The association of physical activity and SUA was negative from 0 to 703 kCal/day (p = 0.07) and positive &gt;703 kCal/day (p &lt; 0.01 for the change in slope).Conclusion: Physical activity and SUA are associated in a non-linear fashion, with a minimum estimated SUA at 703 kCal/day of objectively-measured physical activity. These findings raise intriguing questions about the use of physical activity as a potential adjunctive therapy in patients with gout, and further interventional studies are needed to elucidate the effects of moderate intensity exercise on SUA concentrations.

2022 ◽  
pp. 036354652110642
Patrick G. Robinson ◽  
Tom R. Williamson ◽  
Andrew P. Creighton ◽  
Jennifer Cheng ◽  
Andrew D. Murray ◽  

Background: The physical and mental health benefits of golf are well recognized, and as a moderate-intensity activity, it is an ideal sport for patients after joint arthroplasty. Purpose: To assess the rate and timing of returning to golf and the factors associated with these after hip, knee, or shoulder arthroplasty. Study Design: Meta-analysis; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A search of PubMed and Medline was performed in March 2021 in line with the 2009 PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) statement. Search terms included sport, golf, and arthroplasty. The criterion for inclusion was any published research article studying return to golf after arthroplasty. Random-effects modeling was used to measure rates of returning to golf for each type of arthroplasty. Results: A total of 23 studies were included for review. All studies were retrospective in their methodology. The mean age of patients was 66.8 years (SD, 3.37). Four studies reported on hip arthroplasty, 6 on knee arthroplasty, and 13 on shoulder arthroplasty. Among 13 studies, the mean rate of returning to golf was 80% (95% CI, 70%-89.9%). Hip, knee, and shoulder arthroplasty had mean return rates of 90% (95% CI, 82%-98%), 70% (95% CI, 39%-100%), and 80% (95% CI, 68%-92%), respectively. Among 9 studies, the mean time to return to golf was 4.4 months (95% CI, 3.2-6). Change in handicap was reported in 8 studies (35%) with a mean change of −0.1 (95% CI, –2.4 to +2.2). There were no studies presenting factors associated with return to golf. Conclusion: This is the first meta-analysis of returning to golf after joint arthroplasty. The study reports a high rate of returning to golf, which was greatest after hip arthroplasty. However, the study highlights the paucity of prospective data on demographic, surgical, and golf-specific outcomes after arthroplasty. Future prospective studies are required to eliminate response bias and accurately capture golf and patient-specific outcomes.

Yu-Hui Wu ◽  
Yu-Juei Hsu ◽  
Wen-Chii Tzeng

Patients on hemodialysis with multiple comorbidities have limited physical activity, resulting in poor health, low activity participation, and low quality of life. Accordingly, the nursing care provided to such patients should include regular physical activity training programs. Therefore, this cross-sectional descriptive study investigated whether patients on hemodialysis with and without comorbidities have different levels of physical activity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL); the correlations among the comorbidities, physical activity, and HRQoL of the two cohorts were also assessed. The 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey version 2 and International Physical Activity Questionnaire were employed to collect data from 120 patients on hemodialysis. An independent samples t-test and univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were conducted. The overall HRQoL of patients with comorbidities was lower than that of patients without comorbidities (p = 0.008). Compared with patients who participated in low-intensity physical activity, the overall HRQoL of patients who participated in moderate-intensity physical activity was higher (p < 0.001). The overall HRQoL of patients with comorbidities who participated in low-intensity physical activity was lower than that of those who participated in moderate-intensity physical activity (p < 0.001). Moderate-intensity physical activity was correlated with higher HRQoL for patients with comorbidities. This finding supports the implementation of effective physical activity intervention measures. Furthermore, it supports the promotion of patient self-management and the implementation of regular exercise programs and lifestyle changes, and patients on hemodialysis can benefit from the future management of physical activities.

Life ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 91
Jeffrey S. Forsse ◽  
Zacharias Papadakis ◽  
Matthew N. Peterson ◽  
James Kyle Taylor ◽  
Burritt W. Hess ◽  

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is directly influenced by the deleterious effects of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. The vascular endothelium may transiently respond to aerobic exercise and improve post-exercise vascular renal function in moderate stages of CKD. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is a nitric-oxide-dependent measure of endothelial function that is transiently potentiated by exercise. The purpose of the study was to determine the acute influence of a single bout of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) or steady-state moderate-intensity exercise (SSE) on endothelial dysfunction in moderate stages of CKD. Twenty participants (n = 6 men; n = 14 women) completed 30 min of SSE (65%) and HIIE (90:20%) of VO2reserve in a randomized crossover design. FMD measurements and blood samples were obtained before, 1 h, and 24 h post-exercise. FMD responses were augmented 1 h post-exercise in both conditions (p < 0.005). Relative to pre-exercise measures, total antioxidant capacity increased by 4.3% 24 h post-exercise (p = 0.012), while paraoxonase-1 was maintained 1 h and elevated by 6.1% 24 h after SSE, but not HIIE (p = 0.035). In summary, FMD can be augmented by a single episode of either HIIE or SSE in moderate stages of CKD. Modest improvements were observed in antioxidant analytes, and markers of oxidative stress were blunted in response to either SSE or HIIE.

2022 ◽  
Vol In Press (In Press) ◽  
Faezeh Maleklou ◽  
Azadeh Hakakzadeh ◽  
Farzin Halabchi ◽  
Mastaneh Rajabian Tabesh ◽  
Zahra Alizadeh

Background: Obesity and overweight are among serious global epidemics that significantly threaten human health, especially among women. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the concurrent effects of 6-week caffeine supplementation with moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on weight and body fat among overweight women. Methods: Thirty overweight females (age: 36.47 ± 6.48 years; BMI: 27.61 ± 1.54 kg/m2; mean ± SD) with a sedentary lifestyle were recruited to the study. The participants were randomly allocated to the experimental group, EC (exercise + caffeine) group, who took 100 milligrams of caffeine of the “API” brand supplement 30 minutes before exercise training (n = 15) or control group, EP (exercise + placebo) (n = 15). All participants performed moderate-intensity aerobic exercise with an intensity of 40 to 60% of heart rate reserve based on the individual's exercise test for 30 minutes, three days a week for six weeks. Measurements, including the percentage of body fat, waist circumference, and skinfold (suprailiac, abdominal), were done two times, at baseline and after six weeks of exercising. Results: There were no significant differences between control and experimental groups related to weight (P = 0.22), percentage body fat (P = 0.88), and other measurements after six weeks. Conclusions: 6 weeks of caffeine supplementation combined with moderate-intensity aerobic exercise without dietary interventions couldn’t make a significant reduction in weight and central or total body fat among overweight women.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (8) ◽  
pp. 3135
N. G. Gogolashvili ◽  
R. A. Yaskevich

Aim. To study the prescription rate of lipid-lowering therapy and achieving the target low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) values in outpatients with coronary artery disease (CAD) living in Krasnoyarsk.Material and methods. The study included all patients with CAD hospitalized in the cardiology department of the clinic of the Research Institute of Medical Problems of the North (Krasnoyarsk) in 2018-2019. The analysis included data from 1671 patients (men, 770; women, 901). During hospitalization, an in-depth survey of patients was carried out on the subject of prescribing and taking lipid-lowering drugs. On admission, lipid profile was assessed in all patients.Results. At the time of admission, only 51,4% of patients received lipidlowering therapy. The majority received statin monotherapy (99,2%). Only 0,8% of patients received combination therapy (statin+ezetimibe). The most frequently prescribed statin in the study was atorvastatin — 74,6%. Rosuvastatin was received by 17,1% of patients. In most cases, the doses of atorvastatin and rosuvastatin corresponded to the moderate-intensity statin therapy regimen. The frequently prescribed dose of atorvastatin was 20 mg/day — 54,4%, rosuvastatin — 10 mg/day — 68,7%. The target level of LDL-C <1,8 mmol/L was reached by 16,3%, <1,5 mmol/L — by 9,0%, <1,4 mmol/L — only 6,5% of patients. Most often, the target LDL-C levels were achieved by patients receiving high-intensity statin (HIS) therapy. The target level of LDL-C <1,8 mmol/L was reached by 37,5%, <1,5 mmol/L — 23,9%, LDL cholesterol <1,4 mmol/L — 20,7% of patients, receiving HIS.Conclusion. In patients with CAD living in Krasnoyarsk, the most commonly prescribed statins were atorvastatin and rosuvastatin, but only 32% of patients received HIS. Combination lipid-lowering therapy has been used extremely rarely. Among the surveyed patients, the current target level of LDL-C for patients with CAD (<1,4 mmol/L) was achieved only in 6,5% of patients. In the group of patients receiving high-intensity statin therapy, this target level was achieved in 20,7% of patients, which indicates the need for strict adherence to current clinical guidelines.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Ashish Sarraju ◽  
Andrew Ward ◽  
Jiang Li ◽  
Areli Valencia ◽  
Latha Palaniappan ◽  

AbstractStatin therapy is the cornerstone of preventing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), primarily by reducing low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Optimal statin therapy decisions rely on shared decision making and may be uncertain for a given patient. In areas of clinical uncertainty, personalized approaches based on real-world data may help inform treatment decisions. We sought to develop a personalized statin recommendation approach for primary ASCVD prevention based on historical real-world outcomes in similar patients. Our retrospective cohort included adults from a large Northern California electronic health record (EHR) aged 40–79 years with no prior cardiovascular disease or statin use. The cohort was split into training and test sets. Weighted-K-nearest-neighbor (wKNN) regression models were used to identify historical EHR patients similar to a candidate patient. We modeled four statin decisions for each patient: none, low-intensity, moderate-intensity, and high-intensity. For each candidate patient, the algorithm recommended the statin decision that was associated with the greatest percentage reduction in LDL-C after 1 year in similar patients. The overall cohort consisted of 50,576 patients (age 54.6 ± 9.8 years) with 55% female, 48% non-Hispanic White, 32% Asian, and 7.4% Hispanic patients. Among 8383 test-set patients, 52%, 44%, and 4% were recommended high-, moderate-, and low-intensity statins, respectively, for a maximum predicted average 1-yr LDL-C reduction of 16.9%, 20.4%, and 14.9%, in each group, respectively. Overall, using aggregate EHR data, a personalized statin recommendation approach identified the statin intensity associated with the greatest LDL-C reduction in historical patients similar to a candidate patient. Recommendations included low- or moderate-intensity statins for maximum LDL-C lowering in nearly half the test set, which is discordant with their expected guideline-based efficacy. A data-driven personalized statin recommendation approach may inform shared decision making in areas of uncertainty, and highlight unexpected efficacy-effectiveness gaps.

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