Nowadays, roll-on/roll-off (Ro-Ro) is an important mode for short sea shipping (SSS) due to its advantages of fast and convenient load and unloading system. Despite the advantages, the market share of Ro-Ro is insignificant compared with lift-on/lift-off (Lo-Lo) in the Northeast Asian region that is geographically suitable for fostering SSS. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to have a better understanding of the effectiveness or Ro-Ro and Lo-Lo in the regional SSS market. For this purpose, this paper develops a model to estimate the total logistics cost of the two transportation modes. The total logistics costs of Ro-Ro and Lo-Lo are calculated on three major SSS routes between Korea and Japan. The results show that Lo-Lo outperforms Ro-Ro on most routes in terms of the cost effectiveness, and Ro-Ro is competitive only for high-priced and time-sensitive cargo. However, it is also documented that Ro-Ro transport has a significant impact on reduction in the total logistics costs when companies integrate the supply chain and improve the cooperative relationship to a high level.
We report the first confirmed sighting of the globally Vulnerable Melanitta fusca (Anatidae, Anseriformes) from Yeongil Bay in Pohang in the Republic of Korea. Based on the review of the literature and published checklists of two separate databases (Birds Korea and eBird), we consider this to be the first record of M. fusca on the Korean Peninsula and only the third or fourth record of this species in coastal East Asia.