the tropics
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
K. R. Jones ◽  
G. W. Garcia

Abstract Anthelmintic drugs have been used strategically in livestock reared in the tropics. These drugs have been used in the treatment of endoparasitism which have resulted in an increase in the animals’ performance. The agouti (Dasyprocta leporina) is a neo-tropical rodent with the potential for domestication and has been farmed intensively in Trinidad. However, the objective of this research was to investigate the effect of anthelmintic use of the growth performance of the agouti. In searching the literature, it was found that this type of study on the agouti has not been done. In this experiment fourteen weaned agoutis weighing 1kg were divided into two groups randomly. The first group (T1) was not given any anthelmintic treatment but the second group (T2) was treated with Endovet Ces® subcutaneously every three months. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between the two groups in the carcass weight, weight gain, dressing percentage (hot and cold), heart, lungs, skin, head and feet. However, a significant difference (p < 0.05) was seen between groups in the weight of liver and pluck. To the authors knowledge this is the first time that carcass parameters has been presented in literature. The live weight of the animals at the end of the experiment ranged from 2.4 kg to 2.6 kg and animals had a dressing percentage of 57% to 55%. The results are suggestive that the use of anthelmintic drugs in agoutis reared intensively had no significant effect on weight gain and dressing percentage.

Sukarno Budi Utomo ◽  
Iwan Setiawan ◽  
Berkah Fajar ◽  
Sonny Hady Winoto ◽  
Arief Marwanto

The lack of wind speed capacity and the emission of photons from sunlight are the problem in a hybrid system of photovoltaic (PV) panels and wind turbines. To overcome this shortcoming, the incremental conductance (IC) algorithm is applied that could control the converter work cycle and the switching of the buck boost therefore maximum efficiency of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is reached. The operation of the PV-wind hybrid system, consisting of a 100 W PV array device and a 400 W wind subsystem, 12 V/100 Ah battery energy storage and LED, the PV-wind system requires a hybrid controller for battery charging and usage and load lamp and it’s conducted in experimental setup. The experimental has shown that an average increase in power generated was 38.8% compared to a single system of PV panels or a single wind turbine sub-system. Therefore, the potential opportunities for increasing power production in the tropics wheather could be carried out and applied with this model.

2022 ◽  
pp. 074873042110694
Miguel F. Perea ◽  
Daniel A. Perdomo ◽  
Zenaida A. Corredor ◽  
Mario González ◽  
Hugo Hernandez-Fonseca ◽  

A robust body of evidence has demonstrated that the lunar cycle plays an important role in the reproduction of fish living in natural environments. However, little is known about the influence of the moon on tilapia reproductive activity in intensive fish farming systems. This study aims to evaluate the influence of the lunar cycle on the reproductive performance of tilapias in an intensive outdoor tropical production system in Latin America. Records of two tilapia strains (Nile tilapia [ Oreochromis niloticus; n = 75] and Red tilapia [ Oreochromis spp.; n = 1335]) reared in concrete tanks in a commercial fish farm were analyzed. Over a 3-year period, 60,136 captures were made in intervals of 12 to 14 days and 6,600 females were manually spawned. The number of females spawned and the volume of eggs collected from each tank ( n = 9) were recorded. Data was analyzed by the general linear model and means were compared by least squares means method. A very slight or no variation was observed when the lunar cycle was split into two halves (crescent and waning). The proportions of females spawned and the volume of eggs per spawned female and per female in the tank varied considerably across the eight periods of the lunar cycle, with greater values in the waning than in the crescent phase. A significantly greater proportion of tilapia spawned and yielded more eggs around the full moon than around the new moon and remaining days of the lunar cycle. The moon cycle affected the reproductive activity of tilapia, which were more reproductively active around the full moon and most of the waning phase.

Diversity ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 52
Damayanti Buchori ◽  
Akhmad Rizali ◽  
Windra Priawandiputra ◽  
Rika Raffiudin ◽  
Dewi Sartiami ◽  

There is a high diversity of bees in the tropics, including honey bees and stingless bees, which are the main sources for honey and other ecosystem services. In Indonesia, beekeeping practices have been developed for centuries, and they have been part of many cultural practices in many traditional communities. The objective of this research was to study the beekeeping status and managed bee diversity in Indonesia and to investigate beekeepers’ perspectives on the factors and obstacles related to beekeeping. Direct interview and online interview were conducted to gain data on bees and beekeepers. In total, 272 beekeepers were interviewed across 25 provinces. Samplings of honey bees and stingless bees were also done during direct interviews for further identification and, when possible, pollen identification. All data and specimens were then sent to IPB Bogor for compilation and identification. We recorded 22 species of bees, including 3 species of honey bees and 19 species of stingless bees, that are reared by Indonesian beekeepers, with Apis cerana and Tetragonula laeviceps as the most common species. Our research also found that the majority of beekeepers fall into the category of the younger generation (30–39 years old) with educational background mostly from senior high school. Based on the beekeepers’ perspectives, there are several obstacles to beekeeping, especially the occurrence of death of bee foragers attributed to climate, food source, and pesticides. In conclusion, there is a need to develop a strategy for beekeeping and bee conservation in Indonesia, especially for adaptation and mitigation from environmental changes with a particular focus on climate and land-use change.

2022 ◽  
Qing-Bin Lu

Abstract This paper reveals a new ozone hole that exists in the lower stratosphere over the tropics (30°N-30°S) across the seasons since the 1980s, where an ozone hole is defined as an area of ozone loss larger than 25% compared with the undisturbed atmosphere. The depth of this all-season tropical ozone hole is comparable to that of the well-known springtime ozone hole over Antarctica, while its area is about seven times that of the latter. At the center of the deepest tropical or Antarctic ozone hole, approximately 80% of the normal ozone value is depleted, whereas annual mean ozone depletion in the lower stratosphere over the tropics due to the coldest temperature is about 1.6 times that over Antarctica and is about 7.7 times that over the Arctic. The whole-year ozone hole over the tropics could cause a serious global concern as it can lead to increases in ground-level ultraviolet radiation and affect 50% of Earth's surface area, which is home to approximately 50% of the world's population. Moreover, since ozone loss is well-known to lead to stratospheric cooling, the presence of the all-season tropical ozone hole and the seasonal polar ozone holes is equivalent to the formation of three ‘temperature holes’ in the global lower stratosphere. These findings will play a far-reaching role in understanding fundamental atmospheric processes and global climate change.

Lori Lach ◽  
Dylan Case ◽  
Peter Yeeles ◽  
Conrad J. Hoskin

AbstractInvasive ants are among the world’s most damaging invasive species, often directly or indirectly affecting native fauna. Insecticidal baits are the main method for suppressing or eradicating invasive ant populations, but their use must be considered against potential for unintended effects on native organisms. The invasive yellow crazy ant (Anoplolepis gracillipes) is widespread in the tropics, particularly on islands, where they have displaced a range of invertebrates. Effects of this ant on vertebrates, and in continental ecosystems generally, are less studied. We investigated the effects of yellow crazy ants and bait application on rainforest skinks and their invertebrate prey. We compared skink and skink prey abundance across four replicated rainforest site categories: high and low yellow crazy ant sites had both been baited but differed in yellow crazy ant activity; control sites had never had yellow crazy ants or been baited; and buffer sites had never had yellow crazy ants but had been baited. We recorded significantly lower abundance of two small skink species (Lygisaurus laevis and Saproscincus tetradactylus) in high yellow crazy ant sites compared to all other site categories. The differences persisted even after baiting reduced yellow crazy ant activity by 97.8% ± 0.04% (mean ± SD). A larger rainforest skink species (Carlia rubrigularis) was not negatively affected by yellow crazy ant invasion. Skink prey abundance was significantly lower in high yellow crazy ant sites compared to control sites and low yellow crazy ant sites, but not compared to buffer sites. These differences did not persist following baiting. We found no evidence that baiting negatively affects skinks or their invertebrate prey. Our data suggest that yellow crazy ants, but not the bait used to treat them, pose a direct threat to small rainforest skinks.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-33

Abstract The wind-evaporation-SST (WES) feedback describes a coupled mechanism by which an anomalous meridional sea surface temperature (SST) gradient in the tropics evolves over time. As commonly posed, the (positive) WES feedback depends critically on the atmospheric response to SST anomalies being governed by a process akin to that argued by Lindzen and Nigam (1987), and omits an alternative process by which SST anomalies modulate surface wind speed through vertical momentum mixing as proposed by Wallace et al. (1989) and Hayes et al. (1989). A simple model is developed that captures the essential coupled dynamics of the WES feedback as commonly posed, while also allowing for momentum entrainment in response to evolving SST anomalies. The evolution of the coupled system depends strongly on which effects are enabled in the model. When both effects are accounted for in idealized cases near the equator, the initial anomalous meridional SST gradient grows over a time scale of a few months, but is damped within one year. The sign and magnitude of the WES feedback depend on latitude within the tropics and exhibit hemispheric asymmetry. When constrained by realistic profiles of prevailing zonal wind, the model predicts that the WES feedback near the equator is stronger during boreal winter, while the domain over which it is positive is broader during boreal summer, and that low-frequency climate variability can also modulate the strength and structure of the WES feedback. These insights may aid in the interpretation of coupled climate behavior in observations and more complex models.

2022 ◽  
Anton M. Potapov ◽  
Carlos A. Guerra ◽  
Johan van den Hoogen ◽  
Anatoly Babenko ◽  
Bruno C. Bellini ◽  

Soil life supports the functioning and biodiversity of terrestrial ecosystems1,2. Springtails (Collembola) are among the most abundant soil animals regulating soil fertility and flow of energy through above- and belowground food webs3-5. However, the global distribution of springtail diversity and density, and how these relate to energy fluxes remains unknown. Here, using a global dataset collected from 2,470 sites, we estimate total soil springtail biomass at 29 Mt carbon (threefold higher than wild terrestrial vertebrates6) and record peak densities up to 2 million individuals per m2 in the Arctic. Despite a 20-fold biomass difference between tundra and the tropics, springtail energy use (community metabolism) remains similar across the latitudinal gradient, owing to the increase in temperature. Neither springtail density nor community metabolism were predicted by local species richness, which was highest in the tropics, but comparably high in some temperate forests and even tundra. Changes in springtail activity may emerge from latitudinal gradients in temperature, predation7,8, and resource limitation7,9,10 in soil communities. Contrasting temperature responses of biomass, diversity and activity of springtail communities suggest that climate warming will alter fundamental soil biodiversity metrics in different directions, potentially restructuring terrestrial food webs and affecting major soil functions.

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