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2022 ◽  
Vol 171 ◽  
pp. 104342
Dengjin Shen ◽  
Hang Qian ◽  
Yurong Liu ◽  
Shumiao Zhao ◽  
Xuesong Luo

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Kegan Romelle Jones ◽  
Gary Wayne Garcia

Abstract The agouti (Dasyprocta leporina) is a rodent that is found in the Neo-tropical region. This animal is hunted for its meat but has recently been reared in captivity as a source of meat protein in rural communities. A 20-month experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of an anthelmintic on the reproductive performance of the agouti (Dasyprocta leporina) reared in captivity. This experiment was conducted in the humid tropics of Trinidad and Tobago. Sixteen animals (15 females, 1 male) placed in each of the two treatment groups in a completely randomized study design. In treatment 1 (T1) animals were given subcutaneous injections of Endovet Ces® (Ivermectin/Praziquantel) at 0.2 mg/kg every three months. Treatment 2 (T2) was the negative control group where animals were not exposed to an anthelmintic. Reproductive data were collected at parturition which included birth weight, litter weight, litter size and gender of offspring. The results showed that there was no statistical difference (p > 0.05) between the treatment groups with respect to birth weight, litter weight, litter size and gender. However, agoutis that were dewormed had a higher birth weight (220.24 g vs 209.1 g) and litter weight (369.8 g vs 343 g). The same values were obtained for the litter size (1.7 vs 1.7) and animals that were dewormed had a higher female offspring to male offspring (2.41:1 vs 1.11:1). This experiment demonstrated that the use of an anthelmintic strategically in the management of captive reared agoutis had no statistical effect (p > 0.05) on the reproductive parameters. Therefore, these animals can be kept in captive conditions without being dewormed and produce efficiently with proper feeding and housing management.

Faustin Parfait Koutouan ◽  
Yapo Magloire Yapi ◽  
Souleymane Kande ◽  
Eboua Narcisse Wandan

Background: Internal parasitosis is the most important parasitism in small ruminants in tropical region. Synthetic anthelmintics are usually used for their control. Due to the emergence of resistance in worm population, the use of alternative methods such as plants bioactive molecules are developed. This study aimed at assessing anthelmintic activity of nine varieties of Cajanus cajan, a taniferous plant cultivated in West Africa. Methods: Leaves of the nine varieties of Cajanus cajan were dried, ground and hydroacetonic extracts were obtained by cold maceration at a concentration of 60 mg/ml. Live adult of Haemonchus contortus were obtained from sheep’s stomach and exposed, in triplicate, to the following solutions: hydroacetonic extracts (60 mg/ml), hydroacetonic extracts (60 mg/ml) associated with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) (50 mg/ml), Levamisole (20 mg/ml) and phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution. Worm death time was recorded for each treatment. Result: Worms exposed to Levamisole recorded the shortest death time about 9.73±1.77 min. The potent of the extracts induced worm death time of 64.83±4.73 min while the least efficient induced a death time of 156.50±23.20 min. Worms in the PBS solution were still alive after 24 hours of exposure. These results indicated that the four varieties of C. cajan used in this study have promising wormicidal. Besides that, the effect of tannins were not the only compound responsible for the anthelmintic activity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Luis Fernando Valenzuela-Moreno ◽  
Sara Teresa Méndez-Cruz ◽  
Claudia Patricia Rico-Torres ◽  
Carlos Cedillo-Peláez ◽  
Dolores Correa ◽  

Abstract Background Currently, more than 300 genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) have been described throughout the world, demonstrating its wide genetic diversity. The SAG3 locus is one of the genes included in the genotyping panel of this parasite. It is associated with its virulence since it participates during the invasion process of the host cells. Therefore, cloning, sequencing, and bioinformatic analysis were used to deepen the understanding of the SAG3 locus genetic diversity of T. gondii in blood samples from feral cats. Results Six different SAG3 sequences were detected, five of which were detected in one feline. Three sequences were first reported here; one of them was an intragenic recombinant. In the cladogram, four out of ten SAG3 sequences did not share nodes with others reported worldwide. Conclusions Cloning and sequencing of samples with more than one restriction pattern by PCR-RFLP were very helpful tools to demonstrate the presence of more than three genotypes of T. gondii in the blood of feral cats from southeastern Mexico. This suggests a potential mixed infection of multiple T. gondii strains and high genetic diversity of the parasites in felines in this tropical region of Mexico.

Forests ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 115
Susanti Withaningsih ◽  
Parikesit Parikesit ◽  
Annas Dwitri Malik ◽  
Muthi’ah Aini Rahmi

An extreme landscape is a spatially heterogeneous area with unusual topography that is prone to natural disasters but still exhibits interrelated structures and functions. One of the important functions of an extreme landscape is its ecological function. This study aimed to determine the structure and reveal the ecological functions of an extreme landscape in a tropical region of West Java, with special reference to Rongga Sub-district. The method used was a combination of remote sensing techniques and geographic information systems, which were required to process, analyze, and interpret Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS data. The landscape structure was quantified by landscape metrics, after which an analysis of ecological functions was carried out based on the constituent elements of the landscape. The results showed that the landscape structure of Rongga Sub-district consists of various elements of agroforestry land, open fields, settlements, shrubs, plantations, and rainfed and irrigated rice fields. Additionally, secondary forest land acted as a landscape matrix where rivers crossed as natural corridors. The amount of each element varied; agroforestry land had the highest value, indicating that this element showed a high degree of human intervention. Each patch was adjacent to other patch types, and the landscape diversity was quite high. The extreme topography of Rongga Sub-district supports the landscape connectivity and consequently the presence of wild animals in this area. Therefore, Rongga Sub-district has an essential ecological function as a refuge for protected animals living in non-conservation areas.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (6) ◽  
pp. 676-684
Mata Prasad ◽  
Sutanu Maji

Off-season onion production of is an important issue to challenge the price fluctuation during different time of year and in different location of the country. The present experiment was conducted at sub-tropical region of central Uttar Pradesh (Lucknow) during kharif, late kharif season of 2018-20 to find out the optimum date of transplanting and choice of suitable cultivar of onion for off-season production. The experiment consisted of eight dates of transplanting (30th August, 10, 20, 30th September, 10, 20, 30th October and 10th November) and two cultivars (Agrifound Dark Red and L-883) which was laid out in factorial randomized block design with three replications. Transplanting on 30th September showed maximum vegetative growth in terms of plant height (66.93 cm), number of leaves per plant (14.99), maxi-mum length of leaf (47.60 cm), neck thickness (23.19 mm) at 120 days after transplanting as well as highest average bulb weight (79.53 g) and bulb yield ( 10.02kg/plot and 382.68 q/ha). Among the two varieties L-883 showed the better performance in respect of growth and yield in off season production. Therefore, it may be concluded that the cultivation of L-883 variety and transplanting on 30th September was found best for off –season production in the sub –tropical agro- climatic region of Center Uttar Pradesh (Lucknow) which may be beneficial for increasing farmers’ income as well as for benefit of costumers keeping the balance between demand and supply.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-8
Cassio Ricardo Goncalves Da Costa ◽  
Marcos Gomes da Silva ◽  
Carlos Antonio Gonçalves Da Costa ◽  
Rayane Sley Melo Da Cunha ◽  
Marcia Mayara De Sousa ◽  

Studies that allow the understanding of the nutrient cycling processes and maintenance of soil fertility in the caatinga biome are necessary to assist in the proposal of possible management forms, in view of the sustainability of this ecosystem, to provide data in an area of knowledge the quantification of glomalin can be a good indicator of changes caused by the use of the soil and, in turn, therefore, it can become a good indicator of its recovery because it is correlated with important attributes of the soil. In addition to providing data of this process for a better understanding of the soils of the country, a study on this subject will also contribute with a new database for global monitoring. Research that can follow the regeneration rate of Caatinga forests in the Semi-arid will allow the development of models relating to several variables, not currently available for the semi-arid tropical region.

2022 ◽  
Vol 82 ◽  
B. Paganeli ◽  
M. A. Batalha

Abstract In the tropical region, savannas and seasonal forests, both highly diverse biomes, occur side by side, under the same climate. If so, that mosaic cannot be explained solely by climatic variables, but also by fire, water availability and soil status. Nutrient availability in the soil, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, has been postulated to explain the abrupt transitions between savannas and seasonal forests in tropical regions. Plants from these two biomes may present different nutritional strategies to cope with nitrogen and phosphorus limitation. We used two congeneric pairs of trees — each pair with a species from the savanna and another from the neighboring seasonal forest — to test whether savanna and forest species presented different nutritional strategies during their early development. We cultivated 56 individuals from each of these species in a hydroponics system with four treatments: (1) complete Hoagland solution, (2) Hoagland solution without nitrogen, (3) Hoagland solution without phosphorus, and (4) Hoagland solution without nitrogen and phosphorus. After 45 days, we harvested the plants and measured total biomass, root to shoot ratio, height, leaf area, and specific leaf area. Overall, savanna species were lighter, shorter, with smaller leaves, higher specific leaf areas, and higher root to shoot ratios when compared to the forest species. Nitrogen increased the performance of species from both biomes. Phosphorus improved the performance of the forest species and caused toxicity symptoms in the savanna species. Hence, savanna and forest species presented different demands and were partially distinct already as seedlings concerning their nutritional strategies.

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