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2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-34
Author(s):  
Fan Yang ◽  
Ashok Samraj Thangarajan ◽  
Gowri Sankar Ramachandran ◽  
Wouter Joosen ◽  
Danny Hughes

Battery-free Internet-of-Things devices equipped with energy harvesting hold the promise of extended operational lifetime, reduced maintenance costs, and lower environmental impact. Despite this clear potential, it remains complex to develop applications that deliver sustainable operation in the face of variable energy availability and dynamic energy demands. This article aims to reduce this complexity by introducing AsTAR, an energy-aware task scheduler that automatically adapts task execution rates to match available environmental energy. AsTAR enables the developer to prioritize tasks based upon their importance, energy consumption, or a weighted combination thereof. In contrast to prior approaches, AsTAR is autonomous and self-adaptive, requiring no a priori modeling of the environment or hardware platforms. We evaluate AsTAR based on its capability to efficiently deliver sustainable operation for multiple tasks on heterogeneous platforms under dynamic environmental conditions. Our evaluation shows that (1) comparing to conventional approaches, AsTAR guarantees Sustainability by maintaining a user-defined optimum level of charge, and (2) AsTAR reacts quickly to environmental and platform changes, and achieves Efficiency by allocating all the surplus resources following the developer-specified task priorities. (3) Last, the benefits of AsTAR are achieved with minimal performance overhead in terms of memory, computation, and energy.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Erhan Sezgin ◽  
Anurag Mohapatra ◽  
Vedran S. Peric ◽  
Ozgül Salor ◽  
Thomas Hamacher

<i>The paper has been submitted to PSCC 2022 and is currently awaiting reviews.<br></i><br>This paper proposes and implements, a harmonic analysis algorithm for microgrid Power Hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) experiments, when the point of common coupling (PCC) voltage cannot be directly wired to the local prosumer controllers due to long distances between them. Using frequency-shifting and filtering ideas, the voltage measurement is converted to magnitude and phase information. This is passed over an asynchronous communication link to another controller, where it is recovered into a waveform after delay compensation. The method allows for accurate power calculations and grid synchronization over distributed prosumer controllers. The proposed method can work at different execution rates depending on real time (RT) workload and is shown to be robust against step changes, harmonics and communication delays. The method is demonstrated with two PHIL experiments at the CoSES, TU Munich lab in grid connected and island mode.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Erhan Sezgin ◽  
Anurag Mohapatra ◽  
Vedran S. Peric ◽  
Ozgül Salor ◽  
Thomas Hamacher

<i>The paper has been submitted to PSCC 2022 and is currently awaiting reviews.<br></i><br>This paper proposes and implements, a harmonic analysis algorithm for microgrid Power Hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) experiments, when the point of common coupling (PCC) voltage cannot be directly wired to the local prosumer controllers due to long distances between them. Using frequency-shifting and filtering ideas, the voltage measurement is converted to magnitude and phase information. This is passed over an asynchronous communication link to another controller, where it is recovered into a waveform after delay compensation. The method allows for accurate power calculations and grid synchronization over distributed prosumer controllers. The proposed method can work at different execution rates depending on real time (RT) workload and is shown to be robust against step changes, harmonics and communication delays. The method is demonstrated with two PHIL experiments at the CoSES, TU Munich lab in grid connected and island mode.


2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (6) ◽  
Author(s):  
M. Yusmaridi ◽  
Vevi Sunarti ◽  
R. Rusdinal ◽  
Nurhizrah Gistituati ◽  
Dewi Juita

<p>The rationale of conducting this research came from observations carried out in Junior High Schools in Padang City regarding the large amounts of BOS (School Operational Assistance Fund Program) funds being returned to the government from schools. This phenomenon indicates that the government has not reached the targeted execution rates of BOS funds given to schools. The research method used to analyze the factors causing the low absorption of BOS funds was a descriptive method with a quantitative approach through percentage equations. According to the BOS budgets, the results obtained were 43.9% of schools involved teachers, education personnel, and school committees in planning activities. 43.7% of schools were able to account for the financial reports of BOS funds, while 51.8% of schools were wrong in understanding the regulations. In managing BOS funds, 59.9% of schools had competent human resources, actively participated in Bimtek activities, and had integrity. Only 29.3% of schools carried out administrative activities according to regulations.</p><p> </p><p><strong> Article visualizations:</strong></p><p><img src="/-counters-/edu_01/0773/a.php" alt="Hit counter" /></p>


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
HAMID LAGA ◽  
Marcel Padilla ◽  
Ian H. Jermyn ◽  
Sebastian Kurtek ◽  
Mohammed Bennamoun ◽  
...  

We propose a novel framework to learn the spatiotemporal variability in longitudinal 3D shape data sets, which contain observations of subjects that evolve and deform over time. This problem is challenging since surfaces come with arbitrary parameterizations and thus, they need to be spatially registered onto each others. Also, different deforming subjects, hereinafter referred to as 4D surfaces, evolve at different speeds and thus, they need to be temporally aligned onto each others. We solve this spatiotemporal registration problem using a Riemannian approach. We treat a 3D surface as a point in a shape space equipped with an elastic Riemmanian metric that measures the amount of bending and stretching that the surfaces undergo. A 4D surface can then be seen as a trajectory in this space. With this formulation, the statistical analysis of 4D surfaces can be cast as the problem of analyzing trajectories, or 1D curves, embedded in a nonlinear Riemannian manifold. However, performing the spatiotemporal registration, and subsequently computing statistics, on such nonlinear spaces is not straightforward as they rely on complex nonlinear optimizations. Our core contribution is the mapping of the surfaces to the space of Square-Root Normal Fields (SRNF) where the L2 metric is equivalent to the partial elastic metric in the space of surfaces. Thus, by solving the spatial registration in the SRNF space, the problem of analyzing 4D surfaces becomes the problem of analyzing trajectories embedded in the SRNF space, which has a Euclidean structure. In this paper, we develop the building blocks that enable such analysis. These include: (1) the spatiotemporal registration of arbitrarily parameterized 4D surfaces even in the presence of large elastic deformations and large variations in their execution rates, (2) the computation of geodesics between 4D surfaces, (3) the computation of statistical summaries, such as means and modes of variation, of collections of 4D surfaces, and (4) the synthesis of random 4D surfaces. We demonstrate the utility and performance of the proposed framework using 4D facial surfaces and 4D human body shapes.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
HAMID LAGA ◽  
Marcel Padilla ◽  
Ian H. Jermyn ◽  
Sebastian Kurtek ◽  
Mohammed Bennamoun ◽  
...  

We propose a novel framework to learn the spatiotemporal variability in longitudinal 3D shape data sets, which contain observations of subjects that evolve and deform over time. This problem is challenging since surfaces come with arbitrary parameterizations and thus, they need to be spatially registered onto each others. Also, different deforming subjects, hereinafter referred to as 4D surfaces, evolve at different speeds and thus, they need to be temporally aligned onto each others. We solve this spatiotemporal registration problem using a Riemannian approach. We treat a 3D surface as a point in a shape space equipped with an elastic Riemmanian metric that measures the amount of bending and stretching that the surfaces undergo. A 4D surface can then be seen as a trajectory in this space. With this formulation, the statistical analysis of 4D surfaces can be cast as the problem of analyzing trajectories, or 1D curves, embedded in a nonlinear Riemannian manifold. However, performing the spatiotemporal registration, and subsequently computing statistics, on such nonlinear spaces is not straightforward as they rely on complex nonlinear optimizations. Our core contribution is the mapping of the surfaces to the space of Square-Root Normal Fields (SRNF) where the L2 metric is equivalent to the partial elastic metric in the space of surfaces. Thus, by solving the spatial registration in the SRNF space, the problem of analyzing 4D surfaces becomes the problem of analyzing trajectories embedded in the SRNF space, which has a Euclidean structure. In this paper, we develop the building blocks that enable such analysis. These include: (1) the spatiotemporal registration of arbitrarily parameterized 4D surfaces even in the presence of large elastic deformations and large variations in their execution rates, (2) the computation of geodesics between 4D surfaces, (3) the computation of statistical summaries, such as means and modes of variation, of collections of 4D surfaces, and (4) the synthesis of random 4D surfaces. We demonstrate the utility and performance of the proposed framework using 4D facial surfaces and 4D human body shapes.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Elena Madinabeitia-Mancebo ◽  
Antonio Madrid ◽  
Antonio Oliviero ◽  
Javier Cudeiro ◽  
Pablo Arias

AbstractMaximal-rate rhythmic repetitive movements cannot be sustained for very long, even if unresisted. Peripheral and central mechanisms of fatigue, such as the slowing of muscle relaxation and an increase in M1-GABAb inhibition, act alongside the reduction of maximal execution rates. However, maximal muscle force appears unaffected, and it is unknown whether the increased excitability of M1 GABAergic interneurons is an adaptation to the waning of muscle contractility in these movements. Here, we observed increased M1 GABAb inhibition at the end of 30 s of a maximal-rate finger-tapping (FT) task that caused fatigue and muscle slowdown in a sample of 19 healthy participants. The former recovered a few seconds after FT ended, regardless of whether muscle ischaemia was used to keep the muscle slowed down. Therefore, the increased excitability of M1-GABAb circuits does not appear to be mediated by afferent feedback from the muscle. In the same subjects, continuous (inhibitory) and intermittent (excitatory) theta-burst stimulation (TBS) was used to modulate M1 excitability and to understand the underlying central mechanisms within the motor cortex. The effect produced by TBS on M1 excitability did not affect FT performance. We conclude that fatigue during brief, maximal-rate unresisted repetitive movements has supraspinal components, with origins upstream of the motor cortex.


2020 ◽  
Vol 31 (4) ◽  
pp. 579-601
Author(s):  
Billy Holmes

AbstractThe importance of analysing the death penalty and state-imposed executions is derived from their concerning the right to life, and their retaining wide-spread support throughout retentionist, abolitionist de facto, and abolitionist states worldwide. Discrepancies in the execution rates of retentionist states appear reducible to their serving symbolic or pragmatic functions i.e. they are used primarily to validate public opinion or primarily to deter crime. Prima facie, Japan seems akin to a symbolic state, due to its low execution rate and its official justification for both retaining the death penalty and continuing to use executions i.e. doing otherwise would be undemocratic. However, the practices that surround executions in Japan shroud them in secrecy and silence, which appears at odds with both its apparent symbolic function and this justification. This makes Japan a uniquely important case study for research on practices surrounding executions. Understanding why this contradiction exists will entail a more nuanced understanding of the ways in which the death penalty, executions, and the practices surrounding them, can function in retentionist states. This essay aids such understanding by critically analysing this official justification and various other arguments for why this might be the case and advancing an alternative explanation.


2020 ◽  
Author(s):  
Deborah Beim ◽  
Tom S Clark ◽  
Benjamin E Lauderdale
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