pulse discharge
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2021 ◽  
Vol 60 (3) ◽  
pp. 124-132
Author(s):  
Yevgen Bajda ◽  
Michael Pantelyat

A novel mathematical model describing physical processes during the flow of an aperiodic pulse current with amplitude of 100 kA along a conductor with a circular cross-section is proposed and investigated. It is shown how a short-term electric discharge of an aperiodic shape affects the distribution of the current density in the cross-section of the conductor, causing its nonuniform heating and the appearance of significant thermal forces as well as mechanical stresses and strains. Based on the developed mathematical model, the relation-ship between electromagnetic, thermal and mechanical phenomena is shown, allowing a deeper understanding of the multiphysics processes taking place. The maximum values of the current density are calculated, which on the surface of the conductor reach values of 47 kA/mm2, while the temperature rise of a copper conductor with a diameter of 2.44 mm is no more than 80ºC at high temperature gradients, which causes the appearance of thermal stresses that have value (40–50)% of the value of the short-term strength limit of electrical copper. Utilization of this model allows to more accurately determine the required conductor cross-section based on the characteristics of electromagnetic, thermal and mechanical pro-cesses. It is shown that the simplified model (the condition for the uniform distribution of the current over the cross-section) gives significantly underestimated values of temperatures and does not take into account temperature deformations.


2021 ◽  
Vol 104 (4) ◽  
pp. 128-137
Author(s):  
Ye.S. Mustafin ◽  
◽  
Kh.B. Omarov ◽  
A.S. Borsynbaev ◽  
D. Havlichek ◽  
...  

In this work, for the first time, studies of the mineralogical composition and chemical semi-quantitative spectral analysis (SQSA) of the Zhezkazgan processing plant tailings before and after leaching were carried out. It was found that copper is present in the tailings in the form of the chalcosine and bornite minerals. After leaching with the use of ammonium bifluoride and a hydro-pulse discharge, chalcosine and boronite are destroyed, and copper passes into a solution containing phosphoric acid. As a result of multiple placing of tailings into the solution, the copper content in it is brought to a concentration at which copper deposition on a stainless steel plate is possible. The identification of copper was implemented on a LAES-Matrix grain spectrometer. A visual comparative analysis of the changes in the structure of the treated ore waste was carried out using a TESCAN MIRA scanning electron microscope. Metallic copper was obtained from solution by electrochemical reactions in an experimental laboratory setup as a result. The technology was developed on an experimental laboratory setup for the extraction of metallic copper and brought the choice of the solution medium and electrochemical processes to the stage of obtaining the target metal with a purity of 99.99 %


Author(s):  
Irina V Schweigert ◽  
Matthew Hopkins ◽  
Ed V Barnat ◽  
Michael Keidar

Abstract In experiment and 2D3V PIC MCC simulations, the breakdown development in a pulsed discharge in helium is studied for U=3.2 kV and 10 kV and P=100 Torr. The breakdown process is found to have a stochastic nature, and the electron avalanche develops in different experimental and simulation runs with time delays ranging from 0.3 to 8 μs. Nevertheless our experiments demonstrate that the breakdown delay time distribution can be controlled with a change of the pulse discharge frequency. The simulation results show that the breakdown process can be distinguished in three stages with a) the ionization by seed electrons, b) the ions drift to the cathode and c) the enhanced ionization within the cathode sheath by the electrons emitted from the cathode. The effects of variation of seed electron concentrations, voltage rise times, voltage amplitudes and ion-electron emission coefficients on the breakdown development in the pulsed gas discharge are reported.


Author(s):  
Desheng Zhou ◽  
Jingfeng Tang ◽  
Qiang Liu ◽  
Liwei Zhou ◽  
Liqiu Wei ◽  
...  

Abstract Breaking through the corona discharge current limit and improving the ionization and acceleration process are beneficial to improve the performance of the electroaerodynamic thruster. In this paper, a dual-frequency source of DC and NSP (nanosecond pulse) are applied to generate ionic wind. Electrical, optical and thrust characteristics are compared for the electroaerodynamic thruster with and without the NSPD (nanosecond pulse discharge). The experimental results indicate that the thrust characteristics are enhanced under the effect of dual-frequency sources. Moreover, the inception DC voltage to generate ionic wind is much lower.


Author(s):  
Zhifeng Zhu ◽  
Bo Li ◽  
Qiang Gao ◽  
Jiajian Zhu ◽  
Zhongshan Li

Abstract Precise control of the discharge in space and time is of great significance for better applications of discharge plasma. Here, we used a femtosecond laser filament to trigger and guide a high-voltage DC pulse discharge to achieve spatiotemporal control of the discharge plasma. In space, the discharge plasma is distributed strictly along the channel generated by the femtosecond laser filament. The breakdown voltage threshold is reduced, and the discharge length is extended. In time, the electrical parameters such as the electrode voltage and the electrode gap affect discharge delay time and jitter. By optimizing the parameters, we can achieve sub-nanosecond jitter of the discharge. Based on the spatiotemporal control of the discharge, we applied filament-triggered discharge for one-dimensional composition measurements of the gas flow field. Besides, the technique shows great potential in studying the spatiotemporal evolution of discharge plasma.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2100 (1) ◽  
pp. 012010
Author(s):  
I Znamenskaya ◽  
D Tatarenkova ◽  
I Mursenkova ◽  
T Kuli-Zade ◽  
E Karnozova

Abstract The presence of a dielectric ledge along the pulse discharge propagation led to a redistribution of the pulsed surface (plasma sheets) discharge glow. Discharge glow on the surface without the ledge, was uniform and lasted no more than 200 ns. Two plasma channels with increased glow intensity were observed near the rectangular ledge placed in the discharge area. The duration of these longitudinal plasma channels increased and lasted for about 0.9 μs (at a voltage of 25 kV and a density of 0.03 – 0.18 kg/m3 ). A nine-frame nanosecond camera recorded the evolution of the plasma glow. The dynamics of the flow induced by the pulse surface discharge was recorded using a high-speed shadow imaging during 40-50 μs after the ignition of the discharge.


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