Resveratrol, a naturally occurring polyphenol, has attracted significant attention due to its antioxidant, cardioprotective and anticancer potential. However, its low aqueous solubility limits resveratrol bioavailability and use. In this work, different mesoporous silica matrices were used to encapsulate the polyphenol and to increase its dissolution rate. Pristine MCM-41, MCM-48, SBA-15, SBA-16, FDU-12 and MCF silica were obtained. The influence of SBA-15 functionalized with aminopropyl, isocyanate, phenyl, mercaptopropyl, and propionic acid moieties on resveratrol loading and release profiles was also assessed. The cytotoxic effects were evaluated for mesoporous carriers and resveratrol-loaded samples against human lung cancer (A549), breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) and human skin fibroblast (HSF) cell lines. The effect on apoptosis and cell cycle were assayed for selected resveratrol-loaded carriers. The polyphenol molecules are encapsulated only inside the mesopores, mostly in amorphous state. All materials containing either pristine or functionalized silica carriers increased polyphenol dissolution rate. The influence of the physico-chemical properties of the mesoporous carriers and resveratrol–loaded supports on the kinetic parameters was identified. [email protected] and [email protected] samples exhibited the highest anticancer effect against A549 cells (IC50 values were 26.06 and 36.5 µg/mL, respectively) and against MDA-MB-231 (IC50 values were 35.56 and 19.30 µg/mL, respectively), which highlights their potential use against cancer.
The incorporation of a drug into mesoporous silica (MPS) is a promising strategy to stabilize its amorphous form. However, the drug within MPS has shown incomplete release, despite a supersaturated solution being generated. This indicates the determination of maximum drug loading in MPS below what is experimentally necessary to maximize the drug doses in the system. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize the drugs with good glass former loaded-mesoporous silica, determine the maximum drug loading, and compare its theoretical value relevance to monolayer covering the mesoporous (MCM) surface, as well as pore-filling capacity (PFC). Solvent evaporation and melt methods were used to load each drug into MPS. In addition, the glass transition of ritonavir (RTV) and cyclosporine A (CYP), as well as the melting peak of indomethacin (IDM) and saccharin (SAC) in mesoporous silica, were not discovered in the modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC) curve, demonstrating that each drug was successfully incorporated into the mesopores. The amorphization of RTV-loaded MPS (RTV/MPS), CYP-loaded MPS (CYP/MPS), and IDM-loaded MPS (IDM/MPS) were confirmed as a halo pattern in powder X-ray diffraction measurements and a single glass transition event in the MDSC curve. Additionally, the good glass formers, nanoconfinement effect of MPS and silica surface interaction contributed to the amorphization of RTV, CYP and IDM within MPS. Meanwhile, the crystallization of SAC was observed in SAC-loaded MPS (SAC/MPS) due to its weak silica surface interaction and high recrystallization tendency. The maximum loading amount of RTV/MPS was experimentally close to the theoretical amount of MCM, showing monomolecular adsorption of RTV on the silica surface. On the other hand, the maximum loading amount of CYP/MPS and IDM/MPS was experimentally lower than the theoretical amount of MCM due to the lack of surface interaction. However, neither CYP or IDM occupied the entire silica surface, even though some drugs were adsorbed on the MPS surface. Moreover, the maximum loading amount of SAC/MPS was experimentally close to the theoretical amount of PFC, suggesting the multilayers of SAC within the MPS. Therefore, this study demonstrates that the characterization of drugs within MPS, such as molecular size and interaction of drug-silica surface, affects the loading efficiency of drugs within MPS that influence its relevance with the theoretical value of drugs.