precise control
Recently Published Documents





Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 279
Zhi-Liang Zheng

Cell cycle control is vital for cell proliferation in all eukaryotic organisms. The entire cell cycle can be conceptually separated into four distinct phases, Gap 1 (G1), DNA synthesis (S), G2, and mitosis (M), which progress sequentially. The precise control of transcription, in particular, at the G1 to S and G2 to M transitions, is crucial for the synthesis of many phase-specific proteins, to ensure orderly progression throughout the cell cycle. This mini-review highlights highly conserved transcriptional regulators that are shared in budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), Arabidopsis thaliana model plant, and humans, which have been separated for more than a billion years of evolution. These include structurally and/or functionally conserved regulators cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain (CTD) phosphatases, and the classical versus shortcut models of Pol II transcriptional control. A few of CDKs and CTD phosphatases counteract to control the Pol II CTD Ser phosphorylation codes and are considered critical regulators of Pol II transcriptional process from initiation to elongation and termination. The functions of plant-unique CDKs and CTD phosphatases in relation to cell division are also briefly summarized. Future studies towards testing a cooperative transcriptional mechanism, which is proposed here and involves sequence-specific transcription factors and the shortcut model of Pol II CTD code modulation, across the three eukaryotic kingdoms will reveal how individual organisms achieve the most productive, large-scale transcription of phase-specific genes required for orderly progression throughout the entire cell cycle.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 543
David Tetzlaff ◽  
Vasanth Alagarasan ◽  
Christopher Simon ◽  
Daniel Siegmund ◽  
Kai junge Puring ◽  

The development of noble-metal-free electrocatalysts is regarded as a key factor for realizing industrial-scale hydrogen production powered by renewable energy sources. Inspired by nature, which uses Fe- and Ni-containing enzymes for efficient hydrogen generation, Fe/Ni-containing chalcogenides, such as oxides and sulfides, received increasing attention as promising electrocatalysts to produce hydrogen. We herein present a novel synthetic procedure for mixed Fe/Ni (oxy)sulfide materials by the controlled (partial) sulfidation of NiFe2O4 (NFO) nanoparticles in H2S-containing atmospheres. The variation in H2S concentration and the temperature allows for a precise control of stoichiometry and phase composition. The obtained sulfidized materials (NFS) catalyze the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) with increased activity in comparison to NFO, up to −10 and −100 mA cm−2 at an overpotential of approx. 250 and 450 mV, respectively.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
André Melo ◽  
Valla Fatemi ◽  
Anton Akhmerov

The multi-terminal Josephson effect allows DC supercurrent to flow at finite commensurate voltages. Existing proposals to realize this effect rely on nonlocal Andreev processes in superconductor-normal-superconductor junctions. However, this approach requires precise control over microscopic states and is obscured by dissipative current. We show that standard tunnel Josephson circuits also support multiplet supercurrent mediated only by local tunneling processes. Furthermore, we observe that the supercurrents persist even in the high charging energy regime in which only sequential Cooper transfers are allowed. Finally, we demonstrate that the multiplet supercurrent in these circuits has a quantum geometric component that is distinguishable from the well-known adiabatic contribution.

2022 ◽  
Yiwei Li ◽  
Ning An ◽  
Zheyi Lv ◽  
Yucheng Wang ◽  
Bing Chang ◽  

Abstract Surface plasmons in graphene provide a compelling strategy for advanced photonic technologies thanks to their tight confinement, fast response and tunability. Recent advances in the field of all-optical generation of graphene’s plasmons in planar waveguides offer a promising method for high-speed signal processing in nanoscale integrated optoelectronic devices. Here, we use two counter propagating frequency combs with temporally synchronized pulses to demonstrate deterministic all-optical generation and electrical control of multiple plasmon polaritons, excited via difference frequency generation (DFG). Electrical tuning of a hybrid graphene-fiber device offers a precise control over the DFG phase-matching, leading to tunable responses of the graphene’s plasmons at different frequencies and provides a powerful tool for high-speed logic operations. Our results offer new insights for plasmonics on hybrid photonic devices based on layered materials and pave the way to high-speed integrated optoelectronic computing circuits.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Elisabeth Weyandt ◽  
Luigi Leanza ◽  
Riccardo Capelli ◽  
Giovanni M. Pavan ◽  
Ghislaine Vantomme ◽  

AbstractMulti-component systems often display convoluted behavior, pathway complexity and coupled equilibria. In recent years, several ways to control complex systems by manipulating the subtle balances of interaction energies between the individual components have been explored and thereby shifting the equilibrium between different aggregate states. Here we show the enantioselective chain-capping and dilution-induced supramolecular polymerization with a Zn2+-porphyrin-based supramolecular system when going from long, highly cooperative supramolecular polymers to short, disordered aggregates by adding a monotopic Mn3+-porphyrin monomer. When mixing the zinc and manganese centered monomers, the Mn3+-porphyrins act as chain-cappers for Zn2+-porphyrin supramolecular polymers, effectively hindering growth of the copolymer and reducing the length. Upon dilution, the interaction between chain-capper and monomers weakens as the equilibria shift and long supramolecular polymers form again. This dynamic modulation of aggregate morphology and length is achieved through enantioselectivity in the aggregation pathways and concentration-sensitive equilibria. All-atom and coarse-grained molecular simulations provide further insights into the mixing of the species and their exchange dynamics. Our combined experimental and theoretical approach allows for precise control of molecular self-assembly and chiral discrimination in complex systems.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 10
Ozgun Civelekoglu ◽  
A. Bruno Frazier ◽  
A. Fatih Sarioglu

The magnetic separation of cells based on certain traits has a wide range of applications in microbiology, immunology, oncology, and hematology. Compared to bulk separation, performing magnetophoresis at micro scale presents advantages such as precise control of the environment, larger magnetic gradients in miniaturized dimensions, operational simplicity, system portability, high-throughput analysis, and lower costs. Since the first integration of magnetophoresis and microfluidics, many different approaches have been proposed to magnetically separate cells from suspensions at the micro scale. This review paper aims to provide an overview of the origins of microfluidic devices for magnetic cell separation and the recent technologies and applications grouped by the targeted cell types. For each application, exemplary experimental methods and results are discussed.

Yi Xiang ◽  
Kathleen Miller ◽  
Jiaao Guan ◽  
Wisarut Kiratitanaporn ◽  
Min Tang ◽  

AbstractThe pharmacology and toxicology of a broad variety of therapies and chemicals have significantly improved with the aid of the increasing in vitro models of complex human tissues. Offering versatile and precise control over the cell population, extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition, dynamic microenvironment, and sophisticated microarchitecture, which is desired for the in vitro modeling of complex tissues, 3D bio-printing is a rapidly growing technology to be employed in the field. In this review, we will discuss the recent advancement of printing techniques and bio-ink sources, which have been spurred on by the increasing demand for modeling tactics and have facilitated the development of the refined tissue models as well as the modeling strategies, followed by a state-of-the-art update on the specialized work on cancer, heart, muscle and liver. In the end, the toxicological modeling strategies, substantial challenges, and future perspectives for 3D printed tissue models were explored.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Urban Mur ◽  
Miha Ravnik ◽  
David Seč

AbstractShaping and steering of light beams is essential in many modern applications, ranging from optical tweezers, camera lenses, vision correction to 3D displays. However, current realisations require increasingly greater tunability and aim for lesser specificity for use in diverse applications. Here, we demonstrate tunable light beam control based on multi-layer liquid-crystal cells and external electric field, capable of extended beam shifting, steering, and expanding, using a combination of theory and full numerical modelling, both for liquid crystal orientations and the transmitted light. Specifically, by exploiting three different function-specific and tunable birefringent nematic layers, we show an effective liquid-crystal beam control device, capable of precise control of outgoing light propagation, with possible application in projectors or automotive headlamps.

Aerospace ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 30
Wenyan Gu ◽  
Jinsheng Zhang ◽  
Longye Pan ◽  
Yegao Qu ◽  
Jin-Hwan Choi ◽  

Many solar panels for spacecrafts are deployed by Tape Spring Hinges (TSHs) which have changeable stiffness. The stiffness of TSH is small when panels are folded, and it becomes large quickly in its deployed status. Since the solar panel is a thin sheet, flexible deformation is easily generated by orbit maneuvers. The coupling effect between the nonlinear TSHs and the flexible panels generates obvious vibration which affects the operational stability of the satellite. To investigate this coupling effect, non-deformable, linear deformable and nonlinear deformable panels were modelled by rigid body, modal order reduction method (MORM) and finite element method (FEM), respectively. The driving torque of TSH was described as a function of the rotation angle and angular velocity. The nonlinear properties of the TSH were reflected by one angle-stiffness spline multiplied by one stiffness coefficient. Dynamic responses of a satellite in deployment and orbit steering were analyzed by numerical simulations. Analysis results indicate the local deformation of panels keeps the stiffness of the TSH within a large range which accelerates the orbit maneuvers. However, much vibration is generated by the coupling effect if the luck-up status is broken up. The coupling effect affects the sequence of deployment, overshoot phenomenon and acceleration magnitude of the panels. Although the MORM is more efficient than FEM in computation, we propose FEM is better suited in the design of TSH and in studying the precise control of spacecraft with flexible solar panels and TSHs.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document