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Omar S. Daif ◽  
M. Helmy Abd El-Raouf ◽  
Mohamed Adel Esmaeel ◽  
Abd Elsamie B. Kotb

<span>In this paper, the field analysis of the sleeve rotor induction motor (IM) is carried out taking the rotor ends into consideration. Here, the field system equations are derived using the cylindrical model with applying Maxwell's field equations. It is expected that, both starting and maximum torques will increase with taking the rotor ends than that without rotor ends. A simple model is used to establish the geometry of the rotor ends current density and to investigate the air gap flux density. The magnetic flux is assumed to remain radially constant through the very small air gap length between the sleeve and stator surfaces. Variation of the field in the radial direction is ignored and the skin effect in the axial direction is considered. The axial distributions of the air gap flux density, the sleeve current density components and the force density have been determined. The motor performance is carried out taking into account the effects of the rotor ends on the starting and normal operations. The sleeve rotor resistance and leakage reactance have been obtained in terms of the cylindrical geometry of the machine. These equivalent circuit parameters have been calculated and plotted as functions of the motor speed with and without the rotor ends.</span>

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Gang Ma ◽  
Hui Gao ◽  
Chong Sun ◽  
Yanhong Gu ◽  
Jie Zhao ◽  

To detect the corrosion resistance of a friction stud welding (FSW) joint in simulated seawater (a 3.5 wt% NaCl solution), the pulse electrochemical deposition method was used for electroplating Ni coating with different duty ratios (50%, 80%, and 100%) on the surface of FSW joint. The microstructure and surface structure of the coating were observed by micro-spectroscopy and other characterization methods. The corrosion behavior of the coating was analyzed by means of macroscopic electrochemical testing. The local corrosion law of joint surface and coating surface defects were innovatively explored by using micro-zone electrochemical scanning system. The coating characterization results showed that, as the duty ratio continues to increase, the coating surface becomes denser and smoother, and the corrosion products such as Fe2O3, Fe3O4, and FeOOH are generated. The results of macroscopic electrochemical experiment indicated that the coating with 100% duty ratio has the lowest corrosion current density and the maximum polarization resistance. The scanning vibrating electrode technique results showed that the corrosion current density in the defect area is higher than that in the coating area, and the maximum corrosion current density decreases with the increase of duty ratio. The localized electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results indicated that the localized impedance at the welded zone was the largest, and with the increase of the pulse duty ratio, the impedance diffusion in the defect area was decreasing.

J. Flodin ◽  
R. Juthberg ◽  
P. W. Ackermann

Abstract Background Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) may prevent muscle atrophy, accelerate rehabilitation and enhance blood circulation. Yet, one major drawback is that patient compliance is impeded by the discomfort experienced. It is well-known that the size and placement of electrodes affect the comfort and effect during high-intensity NMES. However, during low-intensity NMES the effects of electrode size/placement are mostly unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate how electrode size and pragmatic placement affect comfort and effect of low-intensity NMES in the thigh and gluteal muscles. Methods On 15 healthy participants, NMES-intensity (mA) was increased until visible muscle contraction, applied with three electrode sizes (2 × 2 cm, 5 × 5 cm, 5 × 9 cm), in three different configurations on quadriceps and hamstrings (short-transverse (ST), long-transverse (LT), longitudinal (L)) and two configurations on gluteus maximus (short-longitudinal (SL) and long-longitudinal (LL)). Current–density (mA/cm2) required for contraction was calculated for each electrode size. Comfort was assessed with a numerical rating scale (NRS, 0–10). Significance was set to p < 0.05 and values were expressed as median (inter-quartile range). Results On quadriceps the LT-placement exhibited significantly better comfort and lower current intensity than the ST- and L-placements. On hamstrings the L-placement resulted in the best comfort together with the lowest intensity. On gluteus maximus the LL-placement demonstrated better comfort and required less intensity than SL-placement. On all muscles, the 5 × 5 cm and 5 × 9 cm electrodes were significantly more comfortable and required less current–density for contraction than the 2 × 2 cm electrode. Conclusion During low-intensity NMES-treatment, an optimized electrode size and practical placement on each individual muscle of quadriceps, hamstrings and gluteals is crucial for comfort and intensity needed for muscle contraction.

Abdul Hanan ◽  
Abdul Jaleel Laghari ◽  
Muhammad Yameen Solangi ◽  
Umair Aftab ◽  
Muhammad Ishaque Abro ◽  

Electrochemical water splitting is one of the promising way to enhance energy with less outflow. In this regard different electrocatalysts have been reported for Oxygen evolution reaction (OER) to get alternative of noble metal based electrocatalysts. In this work, we have introduced Cadmium-oxide/Cobalt-oxide (CdO/Co3O4) nanocomposite by co-precipitation chemical strategy with impressive OER performance in alkaline medium. Almost 310 mV overpotential value is required to achieve 10 mA/cm2 current density with Tafel slope value of 62 mV/Dec. The as synthesized nanocomposite has stability of 6h as its longer electrochemical performance

Akiyoshi Inoue ◽  
Sakura Tanaka ◽  
Takashi Egawa ◽  
Makoto Miyoshi

Abstract In this study, we fabricated and characterized heterojunction field-effect transistors (HFETs) based on an Al0.36Ga0.64N-channel heterostructure with a dual AlN/AlGaInN barrier layer. The device fabrication was accomplished by adopting a regrown n++-GaN layer for ohmic contacts. The fabricated HFETs with a gate length of 2 μm and a gate-to-drain distance of 6 μm exhibited an on-state drain current density as high as approximately 270 mA/mm and an off-state breakdown voltage of approximately 1 kV, which corresponds to an off-state critical electric field of 166 V/μm. This breakdown field, as a comparison in devices without field-plate electrodes, reaches approximately four-fold higher than that for conventional GaN-channel HFETs and was considered quite reasonable as an Al0.36Ga0.64N-channel transistor. It was also confirmed that the devices adopting the dual AlN/AlGaInN barrier layer showed approximately one order of magnitude smaller gate leakage currents than those for devices without the top AlN barrier layer.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 880
Tondepu Subbaiah ◽  
Ponnam Vijetha ◽  
Barsha Marandi ◽  
Kali Sanjay ◽  
Manickam Minakshi

Current density plays a major role in deciding the plant size, current efficiency, and energy consumption in electrorefining cells. In general, operating current density will be 40% of the limiting current density. Forced circulation of the electrolyte in the presence of promoters improves the mass transfer coefficient. In the present study, rectangular turbulence promoters are fitted at the bottom side of the cell to improve the mass transfer coefficient at the cathode support plate. The limiting current density technique is used to measure the mass transfer coefficient. The variables covered in the present study are the effects of flow rate, promoter height, and spacing among the promoters. The electrolyte consists of copper sulfate and sulphuric acid. At a regulated flow rate, the electrolyte is pumped from the recirculation tank to the cell through an intermediate overhead tank. The limiting current density increased with an increasing flow rate in the presence of promoters, and thus the overall mass transfer coefficient on the cathode support plate also improved. With an increase in the flow rate of the electrolyte from 6.67 × 10−6 to 153.33 m3/s, limiting current density increased from 356.8 to 488.8 A/m2 for spacing of 0.30 m, with a promoter height of 0.01 m. However, it is noteworthy that when the promoter height is increased from 0.01 to 0.07 m, the overall mass transfer coefficient is found to increase up to 60%, but with the further increase in the promoter height to 0.30 m the mass transfer coefficient starts to decrease. Therefore, the optimized cell parameters are established in this work. The current sustainable concept of employing rectangular turbulence promoters will bring benefits to any precious metal refining or electrowinning tank house electrolytes.

Xu Yang ◽  
Haiyang Gu ◽  
Kentaro Kawai ◽  
Kenta Arima ◽  

Abstract Slurryless electrochemical mechanical polishing (ECMP) is very effective in the polishing of silicon carbide (SiC) wafers. To achieve a high material removal rate (MRR) of SiC wafer using ECMP with low electrical energy loss, charge utilization efficiency in the anodic oxidation of the SiC surface was investigated and the underlying mechanism was clarified by modeling the anodic oxidation system of SiC in 1 wt% NaCl aqueous solution. The charge utilization efficiency in the anodic oxidation of SiC was found to be constant when the current density was less than 20 mA/cm2 and significantly decreased when the current density was greater than 30 mA/cm2, resulting in a significant reduction in the MRR. Modeling of the anodic oxidation system indicates that the charge utilization efficiency depended on the potential applied on the SiC surface: the oxidation of SiC occupied the dominant position in the anodizing system when the potential is lower than 25 V vs Ag|AgCl, charge utilization efficiency greatly decreased when the applied potential was greater than 25 V owing to the occurrence of oxidations of the H2O and Cl-. This research provides both a theoretical and practical foundation for using ECMP to polish SiC wafers.

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 205
Tahereh Rookesh ◽  
Mohammad Reza Samaei ◽  
Saeed Yousefinejad ◽  
Hassan Hashemi ◽  
Zahra Derakhshan ◽  

Electrocoagulation is a widely used method for treating leachate since it is cost effective and eco-friendly. In the present study, the electrocoagulation process was employed to remove chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH4+, total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), turbidity, and color from landfill leachate. At first, lime was used as a pretreatment, then the Fe/Gr and Ti/PbO2/steel electrodes were used, and the optimum electrode was selected. Afterwards, the effects of some variables, including pH, current density, temperature, the inter-electrode distance, and the type of electrolyte were investigated. Results showed that COD, NH4+, TSS, TDS, electrical conductivity (EC), turbidity, color, and pH of effluent pretreatment chemical reached 22,371, 385, 884, 21,820 (mg/L), 13.8 (ms/cm3), 1355 (NTU), 8500 (TCU) and 10, respectively (the removal efficiency was 0, 20.37, 32.4, 61.99, 59.18, and 56.6 percent). With the Fe/Gr electrode, the optimal condition was observed as follows: pH of 7.5, current density of 64 mA/cm2, inter-electrode distance was equal to 1.5 cm, temperature at 20 °C, and retention time 2–4 h. Overall, the electrocoagulation with the Fe/Gr electrode was a suitable technology for landfill leachate treatment due to its effectiveness for the removal of both COD and NH4+, with advantageous performance indicators.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 503
Barzan Tabei ◽  
Akihiro Ametani ◽  
Aniruddha M. Gole ◽  
Behzad Kordi

This paper presents an accurate quasi-analytical approximation of frequency-dependent ac resistance of single rectangular conductors. In this work, first, a two-dimensional analytical ac resistance of rectangular conductors is derived. Unlike circular conductors, where current density distributes evenly in each layer of the conductor’s cross-section, the edge effect is involved for rectangular conductors. Due to the edge effect, one cannot define an accurate boundary condition for solving the two-dimensional partial differential equation of magnetic field or current density of rectangular conductors. Hence, the calculated two-dimensional analytical current density result is not accurate and is modified and fitted on FEM simulation, taking the conductor’s thickness into account using the least-square problem to improve its accuracy. Unlike numerical approaches, the proposed method yields an easy-to-use formula applicable to industrial applications in different fields. Contrary to the one-dimensional approach, which is only valid for very thin rectangular conductors, this method takes edge effect into account and can be used for any thickness (from square to very thin rectangular conductors). The proposed method can be used in applications where an accurate ac resistance of rectangular conductors over a wide frequency range is required, such as white-box modeling of power transformers and interpreting its frequency response analysis (FRA), and calculating the resistance of electric machine winding, busbars, and printed circuit board traces.

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