Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex
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2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Jana Škerlová ◽  
Jens Berndtsson ◽  
Hendrik Nolte ◽  
Martin Ott ◽  
Pål Stenmark

AbstractThe pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc) links glycolysis to the citric acid cycle by converting pyruvate into acetyl-coenzyme A. PDHc encompasses three enzymatically active subunits, namely pyruvate dehydrogenase, dihydrolipoyl transacetylase, and dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase. Dihydrolipoyl transacetylase is a multidomain protein comprising a varying number of lipoyl domains, a peripheral subunit-binding domain, and a catalytic domain. It forms the structural core of the complex, provides binding sites for the other enzymes, and shuffles reaction intermediates between the active sites through covalently bound lipoyl domains. The molecular mechanism by which this shuttling occurs has remained elusive. Here, we report a cryo-EM reconstruction of the native E. coli dihydrolipoyl transacetylase core in a resting state. This structure provides molecular details of the assembly of the core and reveals how the lipoyl domains interact with the core at the active site.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Cassandra L. R. van Doorn ◽  
Gina K. Schouten ◽  
Suzanne van Veen ◽  
Kimberley V. Walburg ◽  
Jeroen J. Esselink ◽  
...  

Global increases in the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance highlight the urgent need for novel strategies to combat infectious diseases. Recent studies suggest that host metabolic pathways play a key role in host control of intracellular bacterial pathogens. In this study we explored the potential of targeting host metabolic pathways for innovative host-directed therapy (HDT) against intracellular bacterial infections. Through gene expression profiling in human macrophages, pyruvate metabolism was identified as potential key pathway involved in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (Stm) infections. Next, the effect of targeting pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDKs) – which are regulators of the metabolic checkpoint pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) – on macrophage function and bacterial control was studied. Chemical inhibition of PDKs by dichloroacetate (DCA) induced PDC activation and was accompanied with metabolic rewiring in classically activated macrophages (M1) but not in alternatively activated macrophages (M2), suggesting cell-type specific effects of dichloroacetate on host metabolism. Furthermore, DCA treatment had minor impact on cytokine and chemokine secretion on top of infection, but induced significant ROS production by M1 and M2. DCA markedly and rapidly reduced intracellular survival of Stm, but interestingly not Mycobacterium tuberculosis, in human macrophages in a host-directed manner. In conclusion, DCA represents a promising novel HDT compound targeting pyruvate metabolism for the treatment of Stm infections.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Dongze Li ◽  
Yan Yu ◽  
Na Xu ◽  
Wanting Li ◽  
Yanyan Hou ◽  
...  

Abstract IntroductionThe mechanisms of chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH)-induced cognitive deficits remain unclear. Studies have shown that the neuronal metabolism disorders might contribute to the CIH induced-hippocampal impairment. MethodsWe assessed the CIH exposure influences of C57BL/6 mice on the activity of nerve, measured projects related to lipid metabolism, and treated with drugs SMND-309. ResultsOur study found that 12 weeks CIH treatment induced lipid droplets (LDs) accumulation in hippocampal neurocytes of mice, and caused severe neuro damage including neuron lesions, neuroblast (NB) apoptosis and abnormal glial activation. Mechanistically, the results showed that pyruvate dehydrogenase complex E1ɑ subunit (PDHA1) and the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) activator pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase 1 (PDP1) did not noticeable change after intermittent hypoxia. Consistent with those results, the level of Acetyl-CoA in hippocampus did not significantly change after CIH exposure. Interestingly, we found that CIH produced large quantities of ROS, which activated the JNK/SREBP/ACC pathway in neurocytes. ACC catalyzed the carboxylation of Acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA and then more lipid acids were synthesized, which finally caused aberrant LDs accumulation. Additionally, LDs were peroxidized by the high level of ROS under CIH conditions. An active component of Salvia miltiorrhiza, SMND-309, dramatically alleviated these injuries and improved cognitive deficits of CIH mice. ConclusionTherefore, the JNK/SREBP/ACC pathway played a crucial role in the cognitive deficits caused by LDs accumulation after CIH exposure. Together, lipid metabolic disorders contributed to neurocytes damage, which ultimately caused behavioral dysfunction. An active component of Salvia miltiorrhiza, SMND-309, dramatically alleviated these injuries and improved cognitive deficits of CIH mice.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (7) ◽  
Author(s):  
Liang Zhang ◽  
Jianong Zhang ◽  
Yan Liu ◽  
Pingzhao Zhang ◽  
Ji Nie ◽  
...  

AbstractSignal transducer and activator 5a (STAT5A) is a classical transcription factor that plays pivotal roles in various biological processes, including tumor initiation and progression. A fraction of STAT5A is localized in the mitochondria, but the biological functions of mitochondrial STAT5A remain obscure. Here, we show that STAT5A interacts with pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC), a mitochondrial gatekeeper enzyme connecting two key metabolic pathways, glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Mitochondrial STAT5A disrupts PDC integrity, thereby inhibiting PDC activity and remodeling cellular glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondrial translocation of STAT5A is increased under hypoxic conditions. This strengthens the Warburg effect in cancer cells and promotes in vitro cell growth under hypoxia and in vivo tumor growth. Our findings indicate distinct pro-oncogenic roles of STAT5A in energy metabolism, which is different from its classical function as a transcription factor.


Livers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (2) ◽  
pp. 82-97
Author(s):  
Benjamin L. Woolbright ◽  
Robert A. Harris

Pyruvate metabolism is critical for all mammalian cells. The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex couples the pyruvate formed as the primary product of glycolysis to the formation of acetyl-CoA required as the primary substrate of the citric acid cycle. Dysregulation of this coupling contributes to alterations in metabolic flexibility in obesity, diabetes, cancer, and more. The pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase family of isozymes phosphorylate and inactive the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in the mitochondria. This function makes them critical mediators of mitochondrial metabolism and drug targets in a number of disease states. The liver expresses multiple PDKs, predominantly PDK1 and PDK2 in the fed state and PDK1, PDK2, and PDK4 in the starved and diabetic states. PDK4 undergoes substantial transcriptional regulation in response to a diverse array of stimuli in most tissues. PDK2 has received less attention than PDK4 potentially due to the dramatic changes in transcriptional gene regulation. However, PDK2 is more responsive than the other PDKs to feedforward and feedback regulation by substrates and products of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Although underappreciated, this makes PDK2 particularly important for the minute-to-minute fine control of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and a major contributor to metabolic flexibility. The purpose of this review is to characterize the underappreciated role of PDK2 in liver metabolism. We will focus on known biological actions and physiological roles as well as what roles PDK2 may play in disease states. We will also define current inhibitors and address their potential as therapeutic agents in the future.


2021 ◽  
Vol 35 (S1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Erika Palmieri ◽  
Ronald Holewinski ◽  
Nunziata Maio ◽  
Christopher McGinity ◽  
Ciro Pierri ◽  
...  

Author(s):  
W. Chris Moxley ◽  
Mark A. Eiteman

Altering metabolic flux at a key branchpoint in metabolism has commonly been accomplished through gene knockouts or by modulating gene expression. An alternative approach to direct metabolic flux preferentially toward a product is decreasing the activity of a key enzyme through protein engineering. In Escherichia coli, pyruvate can accumulate from glucose when carbon flux through the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is suppressed. Based on this principle, 16 chromosomally expressed AceE variants were constructed in E. coli C and compared for growth rate and pyruvate accumulation using glucose as the sole carbon source. To prevent conversion of pyruvate to other products, the strains also contained deletions in two nonessential pathways: lactate dehydrogenase (ldhA) and pyruvate oxidase (poxB). The effect of deleting phosphoenolpyruvate synthase (ppsA) on pyruvate assimilation was also examined. The best pyruvate-accumulating strains were examined in controlled batch and continuous processes. In a nitrogen-limited chemostat process at steady-state growth rates of 0.15 – 0.28 h−1, an engineered strain expressing the AceE[H106V] variant accumulated pyruvate at a yield of 0.59-0.66 g pyruvate/g glucose with a specific productivity of 0.78 – 0.92 g pyruvate/g cells·h. These results provide proof-of-concept that pyruvate dehydrogenase complex variants can effectively shift carbon flux away from central carbon metabolism to allow pyruvate accumulation. This approach can potentially be applied to other key enzymes in metabolism to direct carbon toward a biochemical product. Importance Microbial production of biochemicals from renewable resources has become an efficient and cost-effective alternative to traditional chemical synthesis methods. Metabolic engineering tools are important for optimizing a process to perform at an economically feasible level. This study describes an additional tool to modify central metabolism and direct metabolic flux to a product. We have shown that variants of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex can direct metabolic flux away from cell growth to increase pyruvate production in Escherichia coli. This approach could be paired with existing strategies to optimize metabolism and create industrially relevant and economically feasible processes.


Cell Reports ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 35 (1) ◽  
pp. 108961
Author(s):  
Amitesh Anand ◽  
Connor A. Olson ◽  
Anand V. Sastry ◽  
Arjun Patel ◽  
Richard Szubin ◽  
...  

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