physiological status
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
F. Asad ◽  
A. Ashraf ◽  
A. Rafique ◽  
S. Qamer ◽  
S. Naz ◽  

Abstract A ninety days nutritional trial was directed to explore the effects of dietary chromium on body composition, gut enzyme activity and physiological status of Cirrhinus mrigala by using G & NG corn. Six experimental diets were prepared by using different levels of chromium chloride hexahydrate (0, 0.2, 0.4 mg/kg, each with G & NG corn). For this experimental trial, 480 fingerlings, irrespective of sex were distributed in six aquariums each with replicate. Results revealed that gelatinized corn along with increasing level of Cr2Cl3.6H2O have a positive impact upon body composition of fish. Hematology was positively correlated with chromium chloride hexahydrate supplementation in gelatinized corn. Amylase gut enzyme also showed significant (P<0.05) increase in group fed with chromium chloride hexahydrate supplemented diet (G corn). However, corn with chromium chloride hexahydrate supplementation did not revealed any significant impact on gut protease enzyme activity. From these results it can be concluded that both chromium chloride hexahydrate and gelatinized corn in fish feed are very beneficial to improve body composition, enzymes activity and physiological health status of fish.

2022 ◽  
Vol 248 ◽  
pp. 106220
Brendan D. Shea ◽  
Sydney K. Coulter ◽  
Kelly E. Dooling ◽  
Hana L. Isihara ◽  
Jessica C. Roth ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 67 ◽  
pp. 149-156
Jonathan P. Bedford ◽  
Alistair Johnson ◽  
Oliver Redfern ◽  
Stephen Gerry ◽  
James Doidge ◽  

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 674
Francesco Rundo ◽  
Ilaria Anfuso ◽  
Maria Grazia Amore ◽  
Alessandro Ortis ◽  
Angelo Messina ◽  

From a biological point of view, alcohol human attentional impairment occurs before reaching a Blood Alcohol Content (BAC index) of 0.08% (0.05% under the Italian legislation), thus generating a significant impact on driving safety if the drinker subject is driving a car. Car drivers must keep a safe driving dynamic, having an unaltered physiological status while processing the surrounding information coming from the driving scenario (e.g., traffic signs, other vehicles and pedestrians). Specifically, the identification and tracking of pedestrians in the driving scene is a widely investigated problem in the scientific community. The authors propose a full, deep pipeline for the identification, monitoring and tracking of the salient pedestrians, combined with an intelligent electronic alcohol sensing system to properly assess the physiological status of the driver. More in detail, the authors propose an intelligent sensing system that makes a common air quality sensor selective to alcohol. A downstream Deep 1D Temporal Residual Convolutional Neural Network architecture will be able to learn specific embedded alcohol-dynamic features in the collected sensing data coming from the GHT25S air-quality sensor of STMicroelectronics. A parallel deep attention-augmented architecture identifies and tracks the salient pedestrians in the driving scenario. A risk assessment system evaluates the sobriety of the driver in case of the presence of salient pedestrians in the driving scene. The collected preliminary results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

2022 ◽  
Noa Barak-Gavish ◽  
Bareket Dassa ◽  
Constanze Kuhlisch ◽  
Inbal Nussbaum ◽  
Gili Rosenberg ◽  

Unicellular algae, termed phytoplankton, greatly impact the marine environment by serving as the basis of marine food webs and by playing central roles in biogeochemical cycling of elements. The interactions between phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria affect the fitness of both partners. It is becoming increasingly recognized that metabolic exchange determines the nature of such interactions, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain underexplored. Here, we investigated the molecular and metabolic basis for the bacterial lifestyle switch, from coexistence to pathogenicity, in Sulfitobacter D7 during its interaction with Emiliania huxleyi, a cosmopolitan bloom-forming phytoplankter. To unravel the bacterial lifestyle switch, we profiled bacterial transcriptomes in response to infochemicals derived from algae in exponential and stationary growth, which induced the Sulfitobacter D7 coexistence and pathogenicity lifestyles, respectively. We found that algal dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) was a pivotal signaling molecule that mediated the transition between the lifestyles. However, the coexisting and pathogenic lifestyles were evident only in the presence of additional algal metabolites. In the pathogenic mode, Sulfitobacter D7 upregulated flagellar motility and many transport systems, presumably to maximize assimilation of E. huxleyi-derived metabolites released by algal cells upon cell death. Specifically, we discovered that algae-produced benzoate promoted the growth of Sulfitobacter D7, and negated the DMSP-inducing lifestyle switch to pathogenicity, demonstrating that benzoate is important for maintaining the coexistence of algae and bacteria. We propose that bacteria can sense the physiological status of the algal host through changes in the metabolic composition, which will determine the bacterial lifestyle during the interactions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Ting-Yung Kuo ◽  
Chao-Cheng Huang ◽  
Shyh-Jou Shieh ◽  
Yu-Bin Wang ◽  
Ming-Jen Lin ◽  

AbstractAn appropriate animal wound model is urgently needed to assess wound dressings, cell therapies, and pharmaceutical agents. Minipig was selected owing to similarities with humans in body size, weight, and physiological status. Different wound sizes (0.07–100 cm2) were created at varying distances but fail to adequately distinguish the efficacy of various interventions. We aimed to resolve potential drawbacks by developing a systematic wound healing system. No significant variations in dorsal wound closure and contraction were observed within the thoracolumbar region between boundaries of both armpits and the paravertebral region above rib tips; therefore, Lanyu pigs appear suitable for constructing a reliable dorsal wound array. Blood flow signals interfered with inter-wound distances ˂ 4 cm; a distance > 4 cm is therefore recommended. Wound sizes ≥ 4 cm × 4 cm allowed optimal differentiation of interventions. Partial- (0.23 cm) and full-thickness (0.6 cm) wounds showed complete re-epithelialization on days 13 and 18 and strongest blood flow signals at days 4 and 11, respectively. Given histological and tensile strength assessments, tissue healing resembling normal skin was observed at least after 6 months. We established some golden standards for minimum wound size and distance between adjacent wounds for effectively differentiating interventions in considering 3R principles.

I. V. Ukolova ◽  
I. G. Kondratov ◽  
M. A. Kondakova ◽  
I. V. Lyubushkina ◽  
O. I. Grabelnykh ◽  

Studies into mitochondrial сomplexomes in various organisms provide an insight into the native organization of proteins and metabolic pathways in the organelles of the subject under study. “Complexome” is a relatively recent concept describing the proteome of protein complexes, supercomplexes, and oligomeric proteins. Complexome analysis is performed using current electrophoretic and mass spectrometric techniques, in particular, by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2D BN/SDS-PAGE) in combination with mass spectrometry (MS). Unlike 2D IEF/SDS-PAGE, this method enables analysis of not only hydrophilic proteins of the mitochondrial matrix, but also membrane proteins and their associations, thus expanding the possibilities of studying the organelle proteome. In the present work, the complexome of etiolated pea shoots was studied for the first time using 2D BN/SDS-PAGE followed by MALDI-TOF MS. To this end, 145 protein spots excised from the gel were analyzed; 110 polypeptides were identified and assigned to different functional groups. A densitometric analysis revealed that the major protein group comprised the enzymes of the mitochondrial energy system (1), accounting for an average of 43% of the total polypeptide content. The remaining 57% was primarily distributed among the following functional categories: pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and citric acid cycle (2); amino acid metabolism (3); nucleic acid processing (4); protein folding (5); antioxidant protection (6); carrier proteins (7); other proteins (8); proteins having unknown functions (9). The obtained data indicate the complex organization of the pea proteome. In addition to the enzymes of the OXPHOS system, the proteins of other functional categories are found to form supramolecular structures. It is suggested that the presence of proteins from other cellular compartments may indicate the interaction of mitochondria with the enzymes or structures of corresponding organelles. In general, the obtained data on the pea complexome represent a kind of a mitochondrial “passport” that reflects the native state of the proteome of organelles corresponding to their physiological status.

Agronomy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 121
Cecilia Rodríguez Ceraolo ◽  
Valeria Vázquez ◽  
Ignacio Migues ◽  
María Verónica Cesio ◽  
Fernando Rivas ◽  

Alternate bearing in citrus trees has been extensively studied as a key feature for citrus growers. Although the genetic and the biochemical process occurring during alternate bearing has been studied extensively, there is a lack of information identifying the presence of metabolic indicators during “on” and “off” years. In citrus plants, leaves play a central role in the metabolic pathway triggering the flowering induction process. To investigate the changes during this transition, a liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of the leaf profiles of 20 compounds (17 polyphenols, two limonoids, and one furanocoumarin), in bearing and non-bearing branches arising from four different mandarin genotypes, was performed. The same metabolites were found in all the genotypes at both stages: both limonoids and 11 polyphenols. Using these compounds, the chemotaxonomic differentiation between cultivars was assessed. The levels of flavanones and limonoids showed differences in both bearing stages and the transition from vegetative to flowering could be shown by the activation of the polyphenol biosynthetic pathway, from precursors like naringenin to metabolic end-points such as narirutin and polymethoxyflavones. Narirutin levels showed significant differences between both stages, suggesting it as a possible marker of the physiological status of the branch.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Luis Silva ◽  
Maria Ll. Calleja ◽  
Tamara M. Huete-Stauffer ◽  
Snjezana Ivetic ◽  
Mohd I. Ansari ◽  

Despite the key role of heterotrophic bacterioplankton in the biogeochemistry of tropical coastal waters, their dynamics have been poorly investigated in relation to the different dissolved organic matter (DOM) pools usually available. In this study we conducted four seasonal incubations of unfiltered and predator-free seawater (Community and Filtered treatment, respectively) at three Red Sea coastal sites characterized by different dominant DOM sources: Seagrass, Mangrove, and Phytoplankton. Bacterial abundance, growth and physiological status were assessed by flow cytometry and community composition by 16S rRNA gene amplicons. The Seagrass site showed the highest initial abundances (6.93 ± 0.30 × 105 cells mL–1), coincident with maximum DOC concentrations (&gt;100 μmol C L–1), while growth rates peaked at the Mangrove site (1.11 ± 0.09 d–1) and were consistently higher in the Filtered treatment. The ratio between the Filtered and Community maximum bacterial abundance (a proxy for top-down control by protistan grazers) showed minimum values at the Seagrass site (1.05 ± 0.05) and maximum at the Phytoplankton site (1.24 ± 0.30), suggesting protistan grazing was higher in open waters, especially in the first half of the year. Since the Mangrove and Seagrass sites shared a similar bacterial diversity, the unexpected lack of bacterial response to predators removal at the latter site should be explained by differences in DOM characteristics. Nitrogen-rich DOM and fluorescent protein-like components were significantly associated with enhanced specific growth rates along the inshore-offshore gradient. Our study confirms the hypotheses that top–down factors control bacterial standing stocks while specific growth rates are bottom-up controlled in representative Red Sea shallow, oligotrophic ecosystems.

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