energy metabolism
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2022 ◽  
Vol 164 ◽  
pp. 136-147
Author(s):  
Giulia Emanuelli ◽  
Anna Zoccarato ◽  
Christina M. Reumiller ◽  
Angelos Papadopoulos ◽  
Mei Chong ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
pp. 096452842110703
Author(s):  
Xiao-xiao Liu ◽  
Li-zhi Zhang ◽  
Hai-hua Zhang ◽  
Lan-feng Lai ◽  
Yi-qiao Wang ◽  
...  

Background and aim: Disordered hepatic energy metabolism is found in obese rats with insulin resistance (IR). There are insufficient experimental studies of electroacupuncture (EA) for IR and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of this study was to probe the effect of EA on disordered hepatic energy metabolism and the adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1)/ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 70-kDa (p70S6K) signaling pathway. Methods: Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats were randomly divided into three groups: EA group receiving EA treatment; Pi group receiving pioglitazone gavage; and ZF group remaining untreated (n = 8 per group). Inbred non-insulin-resistant Zucker lean rats formed an (untreated) healthy control group (ZL, n = 8). Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting insulin (FINS), C-peptide, C-reactive protein (CRP) and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) indices were measured. Hematoxylin–eosin (H&E) staining was used to investigate the liver morphologically. The mitochondrial structure of hepatocytes was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Western blotting was adopted to determine protein expression of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), mTOR, mTORC1, AMPK, tuberous sclerosis 2 (TSC2) and p70S6K, and their phosphorylation. RT-PCR was used to quantify IRS-1, mTOR, mTORC1, AMPK and p70S6K mRNA levels. Results: Compared with the ZF group, FPG, FINS, C-peptide, CRP and HOMA-IR levels were significantly reduced in the EA group ( p < 0.05, p < 0.01). Evaluation of histopathology showed improvement in liver appearances following EA. Phosphorylation levels of AMPK, mTOR and TSC2 decreased, and IRS-1 and p70S6K increased, in hepatocytes of the ZF group, while these negative effects appeared to be alleviated by EA. Conclusions: EA can effectively ameliorate IR and regulate energy metabolism in the ZDF rat model. AMPK/mTORC1/p70S6K and related molecules may represent a potential mechanism of action underlying these effects.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ye Xiao ◽  
Xiang Lin ◽  
Zhong-Qun Liu ◽  
Mei-Lan Zhou ◽  
Tian-Yu Ren ◽  
...  

Abstract Although diquat is a widely used water-soluble herbicide in the world, its toxicity to freshwater fish has not been well characterized. In this study, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based metabolomics approach combined with histopathological examination and biochemical assays was applied to comprehensively assess the hepatotoxicity in zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio) after diquat exposure at two dosages of 0.34 and 1.69 mg·L−1 for 35 days. The results indicated that 1.69 mg·L−1 diquat exposure cause serious cellular swell and vacuolization with increased nuclear abnormality, and lead to obvious disturbance of antioxidative system and dysfunction in liver; while no obvious pathological injury could be detected, and changes in liver biochemistry were less pronounced at the dose level of 0.34 mg·L−1. Multivariate statistical analysis and pattern recognition showed different GC-MS profiles of zebrafish liver following exposure to diquat, the cluster of the treated groups were both clearly separated from the control samples. The differentially abundant metabolites mainly include carbohydrates, amino acids, lipids, nucleotides, and their derivatives. In the exposure group of 1.69 mg·L−1 diquat, severe disturbances of amino acid metabolism played important biological roles associated with inhibition of energy metabolism, reduced immunity, and disorders in neurotransmitters as pathway analysis revealed. Additionally, fluctuation of inositol, creatine, and pantothenic acid, substances associated with stress regulation and signal transduction, participating in metabolic abnormalities in zebrafish with diquat-triggered hepatic damage. Energy metabolism of zebrafish exposed on 0.34 mg·L−1 diquat more inclined to rely on anaerobic glycolysis than the normal ones. Amino acid metabolism responses were less affected, but obvious interference effects on lipid metabolism were observed with 0.34 mg·L−1 diquat exposure. These results imply increased sensitivity of metabolomics versus histopathology and clinical chemistry in recognizing liver toxicity of diquat. This study will contribute to explore possible mechanism of hepatic damages on nontarget freshwater fish induced by diquat and provide important basis for its environmental risk assessment.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262613
Author(s):  
Clara Dreyling ◽  
Martin Hasselmann

The cellular energy metabolism is one of the most conserved processes, as it is present in all living organisms. Mitochondria are providing the eukaryotic cell with energy and thus their genome and gene expression has been of broad interest for a long time. Mitochondrial gene expression changes under different conditions and is regulated by genes encoded in the nucleus of the cell. In this context, little is known about non-model organisms and we provide the first large-scaled gene expression analysis of mitochondrial-linked genes in laying hens. We analysed 28 mitochondrial and nuclear genes in 100 individuals in the context of five life-stages and strain differences among five tissues. Our study showed that mitochondrial gene expression increases during the productive life span, and reacts tissue and strain specific. In addition, the strains react different to potential increased oxidative stress, resulting from the increase in mitochondrial gene expression. The results suggest that the cellular energy metabolism as part of a complex regulatory system is strongly affected by the productive life span in laying hens and thus partly comparable to model organisms. This study provides a starting point for further analyses in this field on non-model organisms, especially in laying-hens.


2022 ◽  
pp. 1-17
Author(s):  
Mingjing Liu ◽  
Shipeng Guo ◽  
Daochao Huang ◽  
Dongjie Hu ◽  
Yili Wu ◽  
...  

Background: Chronic alcohol consumption can alter the structure of the central nervous system and disrupt cognitive function. Alcoholics are more likely to develop neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the role of alcohol in promoting neurotoxicity and neurodegeneration remains unclear. Objective: In this study, we aimed at estimating the effects of chronic binge alcohol exposure on brain transcriptome and behavior changes in a chronic “Drinking in the Dark” (DID) mouse model. Methods: The adult C57BL/6J male mice were exposed to alcohol for 4 weeks. RNA-seq was applied to assess the effects of chronic alcohol exposure on transcriptome in brain. The open field test and novel object recognition test were used to assess the changes of anxiety level, locomotive function, and short-term memory induced by alcohol. RNA-seq analysis revealed that chronic alcohol exposure caused significant change in the brain transcriptome, especially in prefrontal cortex. Results: The gene dysregulation caused by chronic alcohol exposure includes pathways related to mitochondrial energy metabolism (such as oxidative phosphorylation) and multiple neurodegenerative diseases (such as AD and PD). Furthermore, the pathway and network analyses suggest that the genes involved in mitochondrial energy metabolism, ubiquitin-proteasome system, Wnt signaling pathway, and microtubules may attribute to the neurotoxicity and neurodegeneration caused by chronic alcohol consumption. Additionally, locomotive function was also significantly impaired. Conclusion: This work provides gene transcriptional profile data for future research on alcohol-induced neurodegenerative diseases, especially AD and PD.


Life ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 104
Author(s):  
Annie John ◽  
Layla Amiri ◽  
Jasmin Shafarin ◽  
Saeed Tariq ◽  
Ernest Adeghate ◽  
...  

Our recent studies have demonstrated that aspirin treatment prevents inflammatory and oxidative stress-induced alterations in mitochondrial function, improves glucose tolerance and pancreatic endocrine function and preserves tissue-specific glutathione (GSH)-dependent redox homeostasis in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) diabetic rats. In the current study, we have investigated the mechanism of action of aspirin in maintaining mitochondrial bioenergetics and redox metabolism in the liver and kidneys of GK rats. Aspirin reduced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress-induced changes in GSH metabolism. Aspirin treatment also improved mitochondrial respiratory function and energy metabolism, in addition to regulating the expression of cell signaling proteins that were altered in diabetic animals. Ultrastructural electron microscopy studies revealed decreased accumulation of glycogen in the liver of aspirin-treated diabetic rats. Hypertrophic podocytes with irregular fusion of foot processes in the renal glomerulus and detached microvilli, condensed nuclei and degenerated mitochondria observed in the proximal convoluted tubules of GK rats were partially restored by aspirin. These results provide additional evidence to support our previous observation of moderation of diabetic complications by aspirin treatment in GK rats and may have implications for cautious use of aspirin in the therapeutic management of diabetes.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262577
Author(s):  
Jin Tanaka ◽  
Fuka Ishikawa ◽  
Tomoki Jinno ◽  
Motoki Miyakita ◽  
Haruka Miyamori ◽  
...  

cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB)-regulated transcription coactivators (CRTCs) regulate gene transcription in response to an increase in intracellular cAMP or Ca2+ levels. To date, three isoforms of CRTC have been identified in mammals. All CRTCs are widely expressed in various regions of the brain. Numerous studies have shown the importance of CREB and CRTC in energy homeostasis. In the brain, the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) plays a critical role in energy metabolism, and CRTC1 and CRTC2 are highly expressed in PVH neuronal cells. The single-minded homolog 1 gene (Sim1) is densely expressed in PVH neurons and in some areas of the amygdala neurons. To determine the role of CRTCs in PVH on energy metabolism, we generated mice that lacked CRTC1 and CRTC2 in Sim1 cells using Sim-1 cre mice. We found that Sim1 cell-specific CRTC1 and CRTC2 double-knockout mice were sensitive to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Sim1 cell-specific CRTC1 and CRTC2 double knockout mice showed hyperphagia specifically for the HFD, but not for the normal chow diet, increased fat mass, and no change in energy expenditure. Interestingly, these phenotypes were stronger in female mice than in male mice, and a weak phenotype was observed in the normal chow diet. The lack of CRTC1 and CRTC2 in Sim1 cells changed the mRNA levels of some neuropeptides that regulate energy metabolism in female mice fed an HFD. Taken together, our findings suggest that CRTCs in Sim1 cells regulate gene expression and suppress excessive fat intake, especially in female mice.


Author(s):  
Francesca Cuomo ◽  
Carmela Dell’Aversana ◽  
Teresa Chioccarelli ◽  
Veronica Porreca ◽  
Francesco Manfrevola ◽  
...  

Maintenance of energy balance between intake and expenditure is a prerequisite of human health, disrupted in severe metabolic diseases, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D), mainly due to accumulation of white adipose tissue (WAT). WAT undergoes a morphological and energetic remodelling toward brown adipose tissue (BAT) and the BAT activation has anti-obesity potential. The mechanisms or the regulatory factors able to activate BAT thermogenesis have been only partially deciphered. Identifying novel regulators of BAT induction is a question of great importance for fighting obesity and T2D. Here, we evaluated the role of Hif3α in murine pre-adipocyte 3T3-L1 cell line, a versatile and well characterized biological model of adipogenesis, by gain- and loss-of function approaches and in thermogenesis-induced model in vivo. HIF3A is regulated by inflammation, it modulates lypolysis in adipose tissue of obese adults, but its role in energy metabolism has not previously been investigated. We characterized gene and protein expression patterns of adipogenesis and metabolic activity in vitro and mechanistically in vivo. Overexpression of Hif3α in differentiating adipocytes increases white fat cells, whereas silencing of Hif3α promotes “browning” of white cells, activating thermogenesis through upregulation of Ucp1, Elovl3, Prdm16, Dio2 and Ppargc1a genes. Investigating cell metabolism, Seahorse Real-Time Cell Metabolism Analysis showed that silencing of Hif3α resulted in a significant increase of mitochondrial uncoupling with a concomitant increase in acetyl-CoA metabolism and Sirt1 and Sirt3 expression. The causal Hif3α/Ucp1 inverse relation has been validated in Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) knockout, a thermogenesis-induced model in vivo. Our data indicate that Hif3α inhibition triggers “browning” of white adipocytes activating the beneficial thermogenesis rewiring energy metabolism in vitro and in vivo. HIF3A is a novel player that controls the energy metabolism with potential applications in developing therapy to fight metabolic disorders, as obesity, T2D and ultimately cancer.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Elidie Beard ◽  
Sylvain Lengacher ◽  
Sara Dias ◽  
Pierre J. Magistretti ◽  
Charles Finsterwald

Astrocytes play key roles in the regulation of brain energy metabolism, which has a major impact on brain functions, including memory, neuroprotection, resistance to oxidative stress and homeostatic tone. Energy demands of the brain are very large, as they continuously account for 20–25% of the whole body’s energy consumption. Energy supply of the brain is tightly linked to neuronal activity, providing the origin of the signals detected by the widely used functional brain imaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography. In particular, neuroenergetic coupling is regulated by astrocytes through glutamate uptake that triggers astrocytic aerobic glycolysis and leads to glucose uptake and lactate release, a mechanism known as the Astrocyte Neuron Lactate Shuttle. Other neurotransmitters such as noradrenaline and Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide mobilize glycogen, the reserve for glucose exclusively localized in astrocytes, also resulting in lactate release. Lactate is then transferred to neurons where it is used, after conversion to pyruvate, as a rapid energy substrate, and also as a signal that modulates neuronal excitability, homeostasis, and the expression of survival and plasticity genes. Importantly, glycolysis in astrocytes and more generally cerebral glucose metabolism progressively deteriorate in aging and age-associated neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. This decreased glycolysis actually represents a common feature of several neurological pathologies. Here, we review the critical role of astrocytes in the regulation of brain energy metabolism, and how dysregulation of astrocyte-mediated metabolic pathways is involved in brain hypometabolism. Further, we summarize recent efforts at preclinical and clinical stages to target brain hypometabolism for the development of new therapeutic interventions in age-related neurodegenerative diseases.


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