protein complexes
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
A. Ullah ◽  
N. Ali ◽  
S. Ahmad ◽  
S. U. Rahman ◽  
S. Alghamdi ◽  

Abstract Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a non-communicable disease throughout the world in which there is persistently high blood glucose level from the normal range. The diabetes and insulin resistance are mainly responsible for the morbidities and mortalities of humans in the world. This disease is mainly regulated by various enzymes and hormones among which Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a principle enzyme and insulin is the key hormone regulating it. The GSK-3, that is the key enzyme is normally showing its actions by various mechanisms that include its phosphorylation, formation of protein complexes, and other cellular distribution and thus it control and directly affects cellular morphology, its growth, mobility and apoptosis of the cell. Disturbances in the action of GSK-3 enzyme may leads to various disease conditions that include insulin resistance leading to diabetes, neurological disease like Alzheimer’s disease and cancer. Fluoroquinolones are the most common class of drugs that shows dysglycemic effects via interacting with GSK-3 enzyme. Therefore, it is the need of the day to properly understand functions and mechanisms of GSK-3, especially its role in glucose homeostasis via effects on glycogen synthase.

2022 ◽  
Xin Liu ◽  
Wojciech J Nawrocki ◽  
Roberta Croce

Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) is the process that protects photosynthetic organisms from photodamage by dissipating the energy absorbed in excess as heat. In the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, NPQ was abolished in the knock-out mutants of the pigment-protein complexes LHCSR3 and LHCBM1. However, while LHCSR3 was shown to be a pH sensor and switching to a quenched conformation at low pH, the role of LHCBM1 in NPQ has not been elucidated yet. In this work, we combine biochemical and physiological measurements to study short-term high light acclimation of npq5, the mutant lacking LHCBM1. We show that while in low light in the absence of this complex, the antenna size of PSII is smaller than in its presence, this effect is marginal in high light, implying that a reduction of the antenna is not responsible for the low NPQ. We also show that the mutant expresses LHCSR3 at the WT level in high light, indicating that the absence of this complex is also not the reason. Finally, NPQ remains low in the mutant even when the pH is artificially lowered to values that can switch LHCSR3 to the quenched conformation. It is concluded that both LHCSR3 and LHCBM1 need to be present for the induction of NPQ and that LHCBM1 is the interacting partner of LHCSR3. This interaction can either enhance the quenching capacity of LHCSR3 or connect this complex with the PSII supercomplex.

Leukemia ◽  
2022 ◽  
Felix Seyfried ◽  
Felix Uli Stirnweiß ◽  
Alexandra Niedermayer ◽  
Stefanie Enzenmüller ◽  
Rebecca Louise Hörl ◽  

AbstractTargeting BCL-2, a key regulator of survival in B-cell malignancies including precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, has become a promising treatment strategy. However, given the redundancy of anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family proteins (BCL-2, BCL-XL, MCL-1), single targeting may not be sufficient. When analyzing the effects of BH3-mimetics selectively targeting BCL-XL and MCL-1 alone or in combination with the BCL-2 inhibitor venetoclax, heterogeneous sensitivity to either of these inhibitors was found in ALL cell lines and in patient-derived xenografts. Interestingly, some venetoclax-resistant leukemias were sensitive to the MCL-1-selective antagonist S63845 and/or BCL-XL-selective A-1331852 suggesting functional mutual substitution. Consequently, co-inhibition of BCL-2 and MCL-1 or BCL-XL resulted in synergistic apoptosis induction. Functional analysis by BH3-profiling and analysis of protein complexes revealed that venetoclax-treated ALL cells are dependent on MCL-1 and BCL-XL, indicating that MCL-1 or BCL-XL provide an Achilles heel in BCL-2-inhibited cells. The effect of combining BCL-2 and MCL-1 inhibition by venetoclax and S63845 was evaluated in vivo and strongly enhanced anti-leukemia activity was found in a pre-clinical patient-derived xenograft model. Our study offers in-depth molecular analysis of mutual substitution of BCL-2 family proteins in acute lymphoblastic leukemia and provides targets for combination treatment in vivo and in ongoing clinical studies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Anna Foley ◽  
Benjamin E. Steinberg ◽  
Neil M. Goldenberg

Inflammasomes are multi-protein complexes that sense both infectious and sterile inflammatory stimuli, launching a cascade of responses to propagate danger signaling throughout an affected tissue. Recent studies have implicated inflammasome activation in a variety of pulmonary diseases, including pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Indeed, the end-products of inflammasome activation, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18, and lytic cell death (“pyroptosis”) are all key biomarkers of PAH, and are potentially therapeutic targets for human disease. This review summarizes current knowledge of inflammasome activation in immune and vascular cells of the lung, with a focus on the role of these pathways in the pathogenesis of PAH. Special emphasis is placed on areas of potential drug development focused on inhibition of inflammasomes and their downstream effectors.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Alessandra Cecchini ◽  
D. D. W. Cornelison

Although intracellular signal transduction is generally represented as a linear process that transmits stimuli from the exterior of a cell to the interior via a transmembrane receptor, interactions with additional membrane-associated proteins are often critical to its success. These molecules play a pivotal role in mediating signaling via the formation of complexes in cis (within the same membrane) with primary effectors, particularly in the context of tumorigenesis. Such secondary effectors may act to promote successful signaling by mediating receptor-ligand binding, recruitment of molecular partners for the formation of multiprotein complexes, or differential signaling outcomes. One signaling family whose contact-mediated activity is frequently modulated by lateral interactions at the cell surface is Eph/ephrin (EphA and EphB receptor tyrosine kinases and their ligands ephrin-As and ephrin-Bs). Through heterotypic interactions in cis, these molecules can promote a diverse range of cellular activities, including some that are mutually exclusive (cell proliferation and cell differentiation, or adhesion and migration). Due to their broad expression in most tissues and their promiscuous binding within and across classes, the cellular response to Eph:ephrin interaction is highly variable between cell types and is dependent on the cellular context in which binding occurs. In this review, we will discuss interactions between molecules in cis at the cell membrane, with emphasis on their role in modulating Eph/ephrin signaling.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 828
Hakim Manghwar ◽  
Jianming Li

Plants are sensitive to a variety of stresses that cause various diseases throughout their life cycle. However, they have the ability to cope with these stresses using different defense mechanisms. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an important subcellular organelle, primarily recognized as a checkpoint for protein folding. It plays an essential role in ensuring the proper folding and maturation of newly secreted and transmembrane proteins. Different processes are activated when around one-third of newly synthesized proteins enter the ER in the eukaryote cells, such as glycosylation, folding, and/or the assembling of these proteins into protein complexes. However, protein folding in the ER is an error-prone process whereby various stresses easily interfere, leading to the accumulation of unfolded/misfolded proteins and causing ER stress. The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a process that involves sensing ER stress. Many strategies have been developed to reduce ER stress, such as UPR, ER-associated degradation (ERAD), and autophagy. Here, we discuss the ER, ER stress, UPR signaling and various strategies for reducing ER stress in plants. In addition, the UPR signaling in plant development and different stresses have been discussed.

2022 ◽  
Kai-Ren Luo ◽  
Nien-Chen Huang ◽  
Yu-Hsin Chang ◽  
Tien-Shin Yu

Abstract Plants selectively transport mobile mRNAs through intercellular pores, plasmodesmata (PD), to distribute spatial information for synchronizing meristematic differentiation with environmental dynamics. However, how plants recognize and deliver mobile mRNAs to PD remains unknown. Here, by using RNA-live cell imaging, we show that mobile mRNAs hitchhike on organelle trafficking to transport to PD. Perturbed cytoskeleton organization or organelle trafficking severely disrupts the subcellular distribution of mobile mRNAs. We further show that Arabidopsis rotamase cyclophilins (ROCs), which are organelle-localized RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), specifically bind mobile mRNAs on the surface of organelles to direct PD-targeting. Arabidopsis roc quadruple mutants showed reduced in PD-targeting of mobile mRNAs, along with phenotype alterations. ROCs can move intercellularly and form RNA-protein complexes in phloem, suggesting the roles of ROCs in delivery of mobile mRNAs through PD. Our results highlight that an RBP-mediated hitchhiking system is purposely recruited to orient plant-mobile mRNAs to PD for intercellular transport.

2022 ◽  
Ikuo Kurisaki ◽  
Shigenori Tanaka

The physicochemical entity of biological phenomenon in the cell is a network of biochemical reactions and the activity of such a network is regulated by multimeric protein complexes. Mass spectroscopy (MS) experiments and multimeric protein docking simulations based on structural bioinformatics techniques have revealed the molecular-level stoichiometry and static configuration of subcomplexes in their bound forms, then revealing the subcomplex populations and formation orders. Meanwhile, these methodologies are not designed to straightforwardly examine temporal dynamics of multimeric protein assembly and disassembly, essential physicochemical properties to understand functional expression mechanisms of proteins in the biological environment. To address the problem, we had developed an atomistic simulation in the framework of the hybrid Monte Carlo/Molecular Dynamics (hMC/MD) method and succeeded in observing disassembly of homomeric pentamer of the serum amyloid P component protein in experimentally consistent order. In this study, we improved the hMC/MD method to examine disassembly processes of the tryptophan synthase tetramer, a paradigmatic heteromeric protein complex in MS studies. We employed the likelihood-based selection scheme to determine a dissociation-prone subunit pair at each hMC/MD simulation cycle and achieved highly reliable predictions of the disassembly orders with the success rate over 0.9 without a priori knowledge of the MS experiments and structural bioinformatics simulations. We similarly succeeded in reliable predictions for the other three tetrameric protein complexes. These achievements indicate the potential availability of our hMC/MD approach as the general purpose methodology to obtain microscopic and physicochemical insights into multimeric protein complex formation.

2022 ◽  
Asfandyar Sikandar ◽  
Maria Lopatniuk ◽  
Andriy Luzhetskyy ◽  
Rolf Müller ◽  
Jesko Koehnke

Thioholgamides are ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs) with potent activity against cancerous cell lines and an unprecedented structure. Despite being one of the most structurally and chemically complex RiPPs, very few biosynthetic steps have been elucidated. Here, we report the complete in vitro reconstitution of the biosynthetic pathway. We demonstrate that thioamidation is the first step and acts as a gatekeeper for downstream processing. Thr dehydration follows thioamidation, and our studies reveal that both these modifications require the formation of protein complexes – ThoH/I and ThoC/D. Harnessing the power of AlphaFold we deduce that ThoD acts as a lyase and also propose putative catalytic residues. ThoF catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of the terminal Cys and the subsequent macrocyclization is facilitated by ThoE. This is followed by Ser dehydration, which is also carried out by ThoC/D. ThoG is responsible for histidine bis-N-methylation, which is a prerequisite for His β-hydroxylation – a modification carried out by ThoJ. The last step of the pathway is the removal of the leader peptide by ThoK to afford mature thioholgamide.

2022 ◽  
Jasjot Singh ◽  
Hadeer Elhabashy ◽  
Pathma Muthukottiappan ◽  
Markus Stepath ◽  
Martin Eisenacher ◽  

Lysosomes are well-established as the main cellular organelles for the degradation of macromolecules and emerging as regulatory centers of metabolism. They are of crucial importance for cellular homeostasis, which is exemplified by a plethora of disorders related to alterations in lysosomal function. In this context, protein complexes play a decisive role, regulating not only metabolic lysosomal processes, but also lysosome biogenesis, transport, and interaction with other organelles. Using cross-linking mass spectrometry, we analyzed lysosomes and early endosomes. Based on the identification of 5,376 cross-links, we investigated protein-protein interactions and structures of lysosome- and endosome-related proteins. In particular, we present evidence for a tetrameric assembly of the lysosomal hydrolase PPT1 and heterodimeric/-multimeric structures of FLOT1/FLOT2 at lysosomes and early endosomes. For FLOT1-/FLOT2-positive early endosomes, we identified >300 proteins presenting putative cargo, and confirm the latrophilin family of adhesion G protein-coupled receptors as substrates for flotillin-dependent endocytosis.

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