BackgroundConcerns about a growing number of colorectal cancer survivors have emerged regarding cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks. However, there is not yet a predictive tool that can estimate CVD risk and support the management of healthcare as well as disease prevention in terms of CVD risk among long-term colorectal cancer survivors.AimTo develop predictive tools to estimate individualized overall and each subtype of CVD risk using a nationwide cohort in South Korea.Methods and ResultsA total of 4,709 newly diagnosed patients with colorectal cancer who survived at least 5 years in the National Health Insurance System were analyzed. Cox proportional hazard regression was used for the identification of independent risk factors for the derivation of predictive nomograms, which were validated in an independent cohort (n = 3,957). Age, fasting serum glucose, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, Charlson comorbidity index, household income, body mass index, history of chemotherapy, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption were identified as independent risk factors for either overall CVD or each subtype of CVD subtype. Based on the identified independent risk factors, six independent nomograms for each CVD category were developed. Validation by an independent cohort demonstrated a good calibration with a median C-index of 0.687. According to the nomogram-derived median score, relative risks of 2.643, 1.821, 4.656, 2.629, 4.248, and 5.994 were found for overall CVD, ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, total stroke, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhage stroke in the validation cohort.ConclusionsThe predictive tools were developed with satisfactory accuracy. The derived nomograms may support the estimation of overall and individual CVD risk for long-term colorectal cancer survivors.
Cancer survival continues to improve in high-income countries, partly explained by advances in screening and treatment. Previous studies have mainly examined the relationship between individual dietary components and cancer prognosis in tumours with good therapeutic response (breast, colon and prostate cancers). The aim of this review is to assess qualitatively (and quantitatively where appropriate) the associations of dietary patterns and cancer prognosis from published prospective cohort studies, as well as the effect of diet interventions by means of randomised controlled trials (RCT). A systematic search was conducted in PubMed, and a total of 35 prospective cohort studies and 14 RCT published between 2011 and 2021 were selected. Better overall diet quality was associated with improved survival among breast and colorectal cancer survivors; adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated to lower risk of mortality in colorectal and prostate cancer survivors. A meta-analysis using a random-effects model showed that higher versus lower diet quality was associated with a 23% reduction in overall mortality in breast cancer survivors. There was evidence that dietary interventions, generally combined with physical activity, improved overall quality of life, though most studies were in breast cancer survivors. Further cohort and intervention studies in other cancers are needed to make more specific recommendations.