screening programs
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2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
Sarah Pirikahu ◽  
Helen Lund ◽  
Gemma Cadby ◽  
Elizabeth Wylie ◽  
Jennifer Stone

Abstract Background High participation in mammographic screening is essential for its effectiveness to detect breast cancers early and thereby, improve breast cancer outcomes. Breast density is a strong predictor of breast cancer risk and significantly reduces the sensitivity of mammography to detect the disease. There are increasing mandates for routine breast density notification within mammographic screening programs. It is unknown if breast density notification impacts the likelihood of women returning to screening when next due (i.e. rescreening rates). This study investigates the association between breast density notification and rescreening rates using individual-level data from BreastScreen Western Australia (WA), a population-based mammographic screening program. Methods We examined 981,705 screening events from 311,656 women aged 40+ who attended BreastScreen WA between 2008 and 2017. Mixed effect logistic regression was used to investigate the association between rescreening and breast density notification status. Results Results were stratified by age (younger, targeted, older) and screening round (first, second, third+). Targeted women screening for the first time were more likely to return to screening if notified as having dense breasts (Percentunadjusted notified vs. not-notified: 57.8% vs. 56.1%; Padjusted = 0.016). Younger women were less likely to rescreen if notified, regardless of screening round (all P < 0.001). There was no association between notification and rescreening in older women (all P > 0.72). Conclusions Breast density notification does not deter women in the targeted age range from rescreening but could potentially deter younger women from rescreening. These results suggest that all breast density notification messaging should include information regarding the importance of regular mammographic screening to manage breast cancer risk, particularly for younger women. These results will directly inform BreastScreen programs in Australia as well as other population-based screening providers outside Australia who notify women about breast density or are considering implementing breast density notification.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Karen Bedirian ◽  
Tigran Aghabekyan ◽  
Arianna Mesrobian ◽  
Shant Shekherdimian ◽  
Davit Zohrabyan ◽  

Cancer is the second leading cause of death in Armenia. Over the past two decades, the country has seen a significant rise in cancer morbidity and mortality. This review aims to provide up-to-date info about the state of cancer control in Armenia and identify priority areas of research. The paper analyzes published literature and local and international statistical reports on Armenia and similar countries to put numbers into context. While cancer detection, diagnosis, and treatment are improving, the prevalence of risk factors is still quite high and smoking is widespread. Early detection rates are low and several important screening programs are absent. Diagnosis and treatment methods are not standardized; there is a lack of treatment accessibility due to insufficient government coverage and limited availability of essential medicines. Overall, there is room for improvement in this sector, as research is limited and multidisciplinary approaches to the topic are rare.

2022 ◽  
Eugene Chiemeka Nwankwo ◽  
Christian Hendrix ◽  
Kelvin Pollard ◽  
Chad Kallal ◽  
Tim Cruschiel ◽  

Abstract Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second-leading cause of death in the US. Despite the National Colorectal Roundtable goal of achieving 80% adherence, CRC screening remains underutilized, especially in the underinsured populations. Screening programs have been heavily disrupted during the COVID-19 pandemic. Aim: This research was performed to explore the impact of the pandemic on the existing ethnic and gender disparities prevalent in CRC screening. Methods: Patients were identified 1 year before and after COVID-19 precautions began, using March 1, 2020, as the inflection point. For each year, the primary inclusion criterion was an ordered colonoscopy. The outcome of interest was a colonoscopy performed. Differences by year and race were assessed using Chi-square analysis. A cohort of 1413 patients between age 45 and 75 for whom a colonoscopy was ordered was selected from EHR at a single large institution. 897 patients were in the pre-COVID group, and 516 were in the post-COVID group. Results: There was a 51% reduction in screening colonoscopies performed. White patients had a decrease of 49%, and African Americans had a 55% reduction. Stool testing increased from 47% prior to the pandemic to 94% during the pandemic representing a greater than 100% increase in stool testing uptake. Conclusion: The true impact of COVID-19 on colorectal cancer is yet to be uncovered as future mortality estimates from CRC are ongoing. Due to the widespread closure of endoscopy centers and delay in screening, we believe that the pandemic worsened the screening disparities most prevalent among minority populations. Our retrospective analysis over the last two years points to the drastic reduction of screening for all races, and especially for African Americans. As life gradually returns to normal, it would be interesting to see how the past year has impacted the incidence and prevalence of CRC.

Mark Okwir ◽  
Abigail Link ◽  
Joshua Rhein ◽  
John Stephen Obbo ◽  
James Okello ◽  

Abstract Background The impact of the "test-and-treat" program for HIV treatment in rural areas of Uganda on cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) screening or cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is poorly understood. Methods We retrospectively evaluated clinical factors in 212 HIV-infected patients diagnosed with CM from February of 2017 to November of 2019 at Lira Regional Referral Hospital (LRRH) in northern Uganda. Results Among 212 patients diagnosed with CM, 58.5% were male. Median age, CD4 count, and HIV viral load were 35 years, 86 cells/μL, and 9,463 copies/mL respectively. Only 10% of patients had a previous history of CM. We found that 190 of 209 (90.9%) patients were ART-experienced, and 19 (9.1%) were ART-naïve. Overall, 90 of 212 (42.5%) patients died while hospitalized with a median time to death of 14 days. Increased risk of death was associated with altered mental status (HR 6.6, 95% CI 2.411-18.219, p =&lt;0.0001), and seizures (HR 5.23, 95% CI 1.245-21.991, p=0.024). Conclusion Current guidelines recommend CrAg screening based on low CD4 counts for ART-naïve patients and VL or clinical failure for ART-experienced patients. Using current guidelines for CrAg screening, some ART- experienced patients miss CrAg screening in resource limited settings, when CD4 or VL tests are unavailable. We found that the majority of HIV- infected patients with CM were ART- experienced (90.9%) at presentation. The high burden of CM in ART-experienced patients supports a need for improved CrAg screening of ART-exposed patients.

Life ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 81
Csongor G. Lengyel ◽  
Sadaqat Hussain ◽  
Andreas Seeber ◽  
Sara Jamil Nidhamalddin ◽  
Dario Trapani ◽  

Gastric cancer (GC) is the third leading cause of cancer-associated death worldwide. The majority of patients are diagnosed at an advanced/metastatic stage of disease due to a lack of specific symptoms and lack of screening programs, especially in Western countries. Thus, despite the improvement in GC therapeutic opportunities, the survival is disappointing, and the definition of the optimal treatment is still an unmet need. Novel diagnostic techniques were developed in clinical trials in order to characterize the genetic profile of GCs and new potential molecular pathways, such as the Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor (FGFR) pathway, were identified in order to improve patient’s survival by using target therapies. The aim of this review is to summarize the role and the impact of FGFR signaling in GC and to provide an overview regarding the potential effectiveness of anti-FGFR agents in GC treatment in the context of precision medicine.

Doaa M. Abdel-Salam ◽  
Bashayer ALruwaili ◽  
Doaa Mohamed Osman ◽  
Maha Mamluh M. Alazmi ◽  
Sama Ayman Mater ALghayyadh ◽  

Background and Objectives: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious and widespread problem worldwide. IPV can seriously influence the physical, mental, sexual, and reproductive health of women as well as the welfare of their children. In the Middle East, IPV is pervasive and widely acceptable. The present study was done to determine the prevalence and correlates of IPV among women attending different primary health centers in the Aljouf region, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 403 Saudi women attending different primary health centers in the Aljouf region, Saudi Arabia. A structured anonymous questionnaire was distributed to the targeted population during a face-to-face interview. Data analysis was done using the SPSS program, version 24. Results: The present study showed that 30.3% of the participants had been exposed to IPV over the last year. Concerning the types of violence, the present study revealed that emotional violence is the highest followed by physical and then sexual violence representing 92.6%, 67.2%, and 44.3%, respectively. The significant predictors of IPV were women with one to three children (OR = 7.322, p-value = 0.006), women with four children or more (OR = 13.463, p-value = 0.006), and women married to husbands with aggressive behavior (OR = 98.703, p-value < 0.001). Not taking the approval on marriage was significantly associated with more exposure to violence (OR = 3.190, p-value = 0.042). In addition, husband smoking status was a significant predictor for IPV (OR = 2.774, p-value = 0.012). However, women married to alcoholic drinkers had a significantly lower risk for exposure to IPV (OR = 0.108, p-value = 0.040). On the other hand, women’s age, marital status, women’s educational level, monthly income in RS, perception of income sufficiency, marriage duration, the age difference between women and their husband, and drug abuse status of the husband were not significant predictors of IPV (p-value ≥ 0.05). Sociocultural effects were the most frequent reason for IPV as reported by the participants (57.4%). The most common consequences of IPV were psychological problems (75.4%) and injuries (42.6%). Women’s reactions to IPV were leaving home (32.8%) or no reaction (36.8%) to retain their marriage. Conclusions: IPV remains an important public health problem among married women in this study area. Urgent interventions including educational and screening programs for Saudi women are required to mitigate the problem.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 271
Katrin Neumann ◽  
Philipp Mathmann ◽  
Shelly Chadha ◽  
Harald A. Euler ◽  
Karl R. White

There is substantial evidence that newborn hearing screening (NHS) reduces the negative sequelae of permanent childhood hearing loss (PCHL) if performed in programs that aim to screen all newborns in a region or nation (often referred to as Universal Newborn Hearing Screening or UNHS). The World Health Organization (WHO) has called in two resolutions for the implementation of such programs and for the collection of large-scale data. To assess the global status of NHS programs we surveyed individuals potentially involved with newborn and infant hearing screening (NIHS) in 196 countries/territories (in the following text referred to as countries). Replies were returned from 158 countries. The results indicated that 38% of the world’s newborns and infants had no or minimal hearing screening and 33% screened at least 85% of the babies (hereafter referred to as UNHS). Hearing screening programs varied considerably in quality, data acquisition, and accessibility of services for children with PCHL. In this article, we summarize the main results of the survey in the context of several recent WHO publications, particularly the World Report on Hearing, which defined advances in the implementation of NHS programs in the Member States as one of three key indicators of worldwide progress in ear and hearing care (EHC).

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 63
Natarajan Arul Murugan ◽  
Artur Podobas ◽  
Davide Gadioli ◽  
Emanuele Vitali ◽  
Gianluca Palermo ◽  

Drug discovery is the most expensive, time-demanding, and challenging project in biopharmaceutical companies which aims at the identification and optimization of lead compounds from large-sized chemical libraries. The lead compounds should have high-affinity binding and specificity for a target associated with a disease, and, in addition, they should have favorable pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties (grouped as ADMET properties). Overall, drug discovery is a multivariable optimization and can be carried out in supercomputers using a reliable scoring function which is a measure of binding affinity or inhibition potential of the drug-like compound. The major problem is that the number of compounds in the chemical spaces is huge, making the computational drug discovery very demanding. However, it is cheaper and less time-consuming when compared to experimental high-throughput screening. As the problem is to find the most stable (global) minima for numerous protein–ligand complexes (on the order of 106 to 1012), the parallel implementation of in silico virtual screening can be exploited to ensure drug discovery in affordable time. In this review, we discuss such implementations of parallelization algorithms in virtual screening programs. The nature of different scoring functions and search algorithms are discussed, together with a performance analysis of several docking softwares ported on high-performance computing architectures.

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