screening program
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2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
Sarah Pirikahu ◽  
Helen Lund ◽  
Gemma Cadby ◽  
Elizabeth Wylie ◽  
Jennifer Stone

Abstract Background High participation in mammographic screening is essential for its effectiveness to detect breast cancers early and thereby, improve breast cancer outcomes. Breast density is a strong predictor of breast cancer risk and significantly reduces the sensitivity of mammography to detect the disease. There are increasing mandates for routine breast density notification within mammographic screening programs. It is unknown if breast density notification impacts the likelihood of women returning to screening when next due (i.e. rescreening rates). This study investigates the association between breast density notification and rescreening rates using individual-level data from BreastScreen Western Australia (WA), a population-based mammographic screening program. Methods We examined 981,705 screening events from 311,656 women aged 40+ who attended BreastScreen WA between 2008 and 2017. Mixed effect logistic regression was used to investigate the association between rescreening and breast density notification status. Results Results were stratified by age (younger, targeted, older) and screening round (first, second, third+). Targeted women screening for the first time were more likely to return to screening if notified as having dense breasts (Percentunadjusted notified vs. not-notified: 57.8% vs. 56.1%; Padjusted = 0.016). Younger women were less likely to rescreen if notified, regardless of screening round (all P < 0.001). There was no association between notification and rescreening in older women (all P > 0.72). Conclusions Breast density notification does not deter women in the targeted age range from rescreening but could potentially deter younger women from rescreening. These results suggest that all breast density notification messaging should include information regarding the importance of regular mammographic screening to manage breast cancer risk, particularly for younger women. These results will directly inform BreastScreen programs in Australia as well as other population-based screening providers outside Australia who notify women about breast density or are considering implementing breast density notification.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 92
Lilianna Becan ◽  
Anna Pyra ◽  
Nina Rembiałkowska ◽  
Iwona Bryndal

Thiazolo[4,5-d]pyrimidine derivatives are considered potential therapeutic agents, particularly in the development of anticancer drugs. In this study, new 7-oxo-(2a-e), 7-chloro-(3a-e) and also three 7-amino-(4a-c) 5-trifluoromethyl-2-thioxo-thiazolo[4,5-d]pyrimidine derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for their potential anticancer activity. These derivatives were characterized by spectroscopic methods and elemental analysis, and the single-crystal X-ray diffraction was further performed to confirm a 3D structure for compounds 2e and 4b. The antiproliferative activity evaluation of twelve new compounds was carried out on a variety of cell lines including four human cancer (A375, C32, DU145, MCF-7/WT) and two normal cell lines (CHO-K1 and HaCaT). Four of them (2b, 3b, 4b and 4c) were selected by the National Cancer Institute and evaluated for their in vitro anticancer activity using the NCI-60 screening program. 7-Chloro-3-phenyl-5-(trifluoromethyl)[1,3]thiazolo[4,5-d]pyrimidine-2(3H)-thione (3b) proved to be the most active among the newly synthesized compounds.

Jeffrey S. Karst ◽  
Meghan Miller ◽  
Amy K. Heffelfinger ◽  
Robert F. Newby ◽  
J. Paul Scott

Trials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Anna Wood ◽  
Jon D. Emery ◽  
Mark Jenkins ◽  
Patty Chondros ◽  
Tina Campbell ◽  

Abstract Background Increasing participation in the Australian National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP) is the most efficient and cost-effective way of reducing mortality associated with colorectal cancer by detecting and treating early-stage disease. Currently, only 44% of Australians aged 50–74 years complete the NBCSP. This efficacy trial aims to test whether this SMS intervention is an effective method for increasing participation in the NBCSP. Furthermore, a process evaluation will explore the barriers and facilitators to sending the SMS from general practice. Methods We will recruit 20 general practices in the western region of Victoria, Australia to participate in a cluster randomised controlled trial. General practices will be randomly allocated with a 1:1 ratio to either a control or intervention group. Established general practice software will be used to identify patients aged 50 to 60 years old who are due to receive a NBCSP kit in the next month. The SMS intervention includes GP endorsement and links to narrative messages about the benefits of and instructions on how to complete the NBCSP kit. It will be sent from intervention general practices to eligible patients prior to receiving the NBCSP kit. We require 1400 eligible patients to provide 80% power with a two-sided 5% significance level to detect a 10% increase in CRC screening participation in the intervention group compared to the control group. Our primary outcome is the difference in the proportion of eligible patients who completed a faecal occult blood test (FOBT) between the intervention and control group for up to 12 months after the SMS was sent, as recorded in their electronic medical record (EMR). A process evaluation using interview data collected from general practice staff (GP, practice managers, nurses) and patients will explore the feasibility and acceptability of sending and receiving a SMS to prompt completing a NBCSP kit. Discussion This efficacy trial will provide initial trial evidence of the utility of an SMS narrative intervention to increase participation in the NBCSP. The results will inform decisions about the need for and design of a larger, multi-state trial of this SMS intervention to determine its cost-effectiveness and future implementation. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12620001020976. Registered on 17 October 2020.

Ahmad Shaker Abdalrada ◽  
Jemal Abawajy ◽  
Tahsien Al-Quraishi ◽  
Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam

Abstract Background Diabetic mellitus (DM) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) cause significant healthcare burden globally and often co-exists. Current approaches often fail to identify many people with co-occurrence of DM and CVD, leading to delay in healthcare seeking, increased complications and morbidity. In this paper, we aimed to develop and evaluate a two-stage machine learning (ML) model to predict the co-occurrence of DM and CVD. Methods We used the diabetes complications screening research initiative (DiScRi) dataset containing >200 variables from >2000 participants. In the first stage, we used two ML models (logistic regression and Evimp functions) implemented in multivariate adaptive regression splines model to infer the significant common risk factors for DM and CVD and applied the correlation matrix to reduce redundancy. In the second stage, we used classification and regression algorithm to develop our model. We evaluated the prediction models using prediction accuracy, sensitivity and specificity as performance metrics. Results Common risk factors for DM and CVD co-occurrence was family history of the diseases, gender, deep breathing heart rate change, lying to standing blood pressure change, HbA1c, HDL and TC\HDL ratio. The predictive model showed that the participants with HbA1c >6.45 and TC\HDL ratio > 5.5 were at risk of developing both diseases (97.9% probability). In contrast, participants with HbA1c >6.45 and TC\HDL ratio ≤ 5.5 were more likely to have only DM (84.5% probability) and those with HbA1c ≤5.45 and HDL >1.45 were likely to be healthy (82.4%. probability). Further, participants with HbA1c ≤5.45 and HDL <1.45 were at risk of only CVD (100% probability). The predictive accuracy of the ML model to detect co-occurrence of DM and CVD is 94.09%, sensitivity 93.5%, and specificity 95.8%. Conclusions Our ML model can significantly predict with high accuracy the co-occurrence of DM and CVD in people attending a screening program. This might help in early detection of patients with DM and CVD who could benefit from preventive treatment and reduce future healthcare burden.

2022 ◽  
Samantha M. Hall ◽  
Lena Landaverde ◽  
Christopher Gill ◽  
Grace Midori Yee ◽  
Madison Sullivan ◽  

RT-qPCR has been used as the gold standard method for detecting SARS-CoV-2 since early in the pandemic. At our university based high throughput screening program, we test all members of our community weekly. RT-qPCR cycle threshold (CT) values are inversely proportional to the amount of viral RNA in a sample, and thus are a proxy for viral load. We hypothesized that CT values would be higher, and thus the viral loads at the time of diagnosis would be lower in individuals who were infected with the virus but remained asymptomatic throughout the course of the infection. We collected the N1 and N2 CT values from 1633 SARS-CoV-2 positive RT-qPCR tests of individuals sampled between August 7, 2020, and March 18, 2021, at the BU Clinical Testing Laboratory. We matched this data with symptom reporting data from our clinical team. We found that asymptomatic patients had CT values significantly higher than symptomatic individuals on the day of diagnosis. Symptoms were followed by the clinical team for 10 days post the first positive test. Within the entire population, 78.1% experienced at least one symptom during surveillance by the clinical team (n=1276/1633). Of those experiencing symptoms, the most common symptoms were nasal congestion (73%, n=932, 1276), cough (60.0%, n=761/1276), fatigue (59.0%, n=753/1276), and sore throat (53.1%, n=678/1276). The least common symptoms were diarrhea (12.5%, n=160/1276), dyspnea on exertion (DOE) (6.9%, n=88/1276), foot or skin changes (including rash) (4.2%, n=53/1276), and vomiting (2.1%, n= 27/1276). Presymptomatic individuals, those who were not symptomatic on the day of diagnosis but became symptomatic over the following 10 days, had CT values higher for both N1 (median= 27.1, IQR 20.2- 32.9) and N2 (median=26.6, IQR 20.1-32.8) than the symptomatic group N1 (median= 21.8, IQR 17.2- 29.4) and N2 (median= 21.4, IQR 17.3- 28.9) but lower than the asymptomatic group N1 (median=29.9, IQR 23.6-35.5) and N2 (median= 30.0, IQR 23.1- 35.7). This study supports the hypothesis that viral load in the anterior nares on the day of diagnosis is a measure of disease intensity at that time.

Diagnostics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 171
Birgitte Skau ◽  
Ulrik Deding ◽  
Lasse Kaalby ◽  
Gunnar Baatrup ◽  
Morten Kobaek-Larsen ◽  

The aim of this study is to investigate the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and the risk of having an incomplete colonoscopy (IC) in the Danish Colorectal Cancer (CRC) Screening Program. In this register-based study we included 71,973 participants who underwent colonoscopy after a positive fecal immunochemical test in the Danish CRC Screening Program. The main exposure, SES, was defined by income and education, and the outcome by complete or incomplete colonoscopy. Among the participants, 5428 (7.5%) had an incomplete colonoscopy. The odds ratio (OR) for ICs due to inadequate bowel preparation was 1.67 (95% CI: 1.46; 1.91) for income in the 1 quartile compared to income in the 4th quartile. ORs for income in the 2nd quartile was 1.38 (95% CI: 1.21; 1.56) and 1.17 (95% CI: 1.03; 1.33) for income in the 3rd quartile. For the educational level, an association was seen for high school/vocational education with an OR of 0.87 (95% CI: 0.79; 0.97) compared to higher education. For ICs due to other reasons, the level of income was associated with the risk of having an IC with an OR of 1.19 (95% CI: 1.05; 1.35) in the 1st quartile and an OR of 1.19 (95% CI: 1.06; 1.34) in the 2nd quartile. For the educational level, there were no significant associations. Low income is associated with high risk of having an IC, whereas educational level does not show the same unambiguous association.

2022 ◽  
Zachary P. Kaltenborn ◽  
Anteneh Zewde ◽  
Jonathan D Kirsch ◽  
Michelle Yates ◽  
Katelyn M. Tessier ◽  

Abstract Background: Rheumatic heart disease affects 33 million people in low and middle income countries and is the leading cause of cardiovascular death among children and young adults. Penicillin prophylaxis has been shown to improve valvular function among patients with clinically silent or mild disease. Efforts to expand echocardiographic screening are focusing on simplified protocols, non-physician ultrasonographers, and portable ultrasound devices, including handheld ultrasound. Recent advances support the use of single-view screening protocols. With the increasing availability and low cost of handheld devices, prospective studies are needed to evaluate their performance in these settings. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional pilot study among 19 at-risk school-children participating in a rheumatic heart disease screening program in Ethiopia comparing a handheld ultrasound device (Phillips Lumify) to a fully-equipped portable ultrasound machine (Sonosite M-Turbo). Results: Agreement between devices was similar for expert and non-expert review (84%). However, when reviewed by a non-expert the Lumify identified fewer screen-positive cases (p-value 0.083). We also compared non-expert to expert interpretation by device and found a significant difference in interpretation for the Lumify (p-value 0.025). There was a trend towards shorter jet length by color Doppler in the handheld ultrasound device for both expert and non-expert review. Conclusions: Our study highlights that screening echocardiograms for RHD may yield different results when a handheld ultrasound device is used.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 51
Dedi Apriadi

Background: Nagan Raya Regency is included in the top 5 districts/cities with the fourth highest number of hepatitis in Aceh Province. The hepatitis B screening program has not been implemented properly. The impact of the low coverage of this program affects public ignorance about the spread of hepatitis B from sufferers to other communities.Objective: This study aims to analyze the participation factors for Hepatitis B screening in pregnant women in the working area of the Ujong Patihah Health Center.Method: This research design is cross sectional study, in 2021. Data were collected using a questionnaire with a sample size of 220 pregnant women. Data collection was carried out by direct interviews with respondents, using a questionnaire instrument. Data analysis used the Cgi-square statistical test with a significance level of 95%, and continued with multivariate analysis using the Binary Logistics Regression test.Results: Bivariate analysis showed that there was a relationship between knowledge (p= 0.022), mother's attitude (p= 0.010), husband's role (p = 0.018), role of health workers (p = 0.028) and participation in hepatitis B screening, while education did not affect participation in hepatitis B screening (p= 0.668). Multivariate results showed that the mother's attitude was the dominant factor for participation in hepatitis B screening (OR= 2.24).Conclusion: Positive attitudes had a 2.24 times relationship to the participation of pregnant women in hepatitis B screening than negative attitudes. 

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Alma Kurent ◽  
Dragica Kosec

Background: Childhood vision screening is aimed at the detection of reduced vision due to amblyopia, thus enabling early diagnosis and timely intervention. The purpose of the study was to review the demographics and visual parameters of children referred to the ophthalmologist at Community Health Centre Ljubljana from Slovenian community-based vision screening program and define the visual outcome after treatment in children with amblyopia. Methods: Retrospective medical records review of children referred from community-based vision screening program for further assessment. Medical records were reviewed to determine findings from ophthalmic assessments, treatment received, and visual acuity at the final visit. The main outcome measures were the cause of visual impairment and the visual acuity at the final follow-up visit. Results: From 439 children (mean age 7.3 +/- 3.7 years) referred from community-based vision screening program, 75 children (17%; mean age 5.3 +/- 2.6 years) had amblyopia and received treatment. They had amblyogenic refractive error (3.67 +/- 2.44 diopters of sphere and 1.86 +/- 1.23 diopters of astigmatism) with uncorrected visual acuity on average 0.32 +/- 0.28 logMAR in the worse eye. Visual outcomes after treatment were good with a visual acuity of 0.04 +/- 0.07 logMAR in the worse eye, 60% of them had a visual acuity of 0.00 logMAR (40/40). Conclusion: Children with amblyopia in the presented clinical sample were mostly diagnosed and treated before the school-age. These children showed significant improvement in visual acuity in the amblyopic eye.

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