Cohort Studies
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Prakash KN Bhanu ◽  
Channarayapatna Srinivas Arvind ◽  
Ling Yun Yeow ◽  
Wen Xiang Chen ◽  
Wee Shiong Lim ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Yu Sasaki ◽  
Yasuhiko Abe ◽  
Masakuni Shoji ◽  
Naoko Mizumoto ◽  
Hiroaki Takeda ◽  

AbstractGeneral population-based cohort studies provide solid evidence on mass Helicobacter pylori (HP) eradication effects. Self-reported questionnaires are occasionally used in such studies to ascertain the HP eradication history. However, reports on the reliability of these questionnaires are lacking. This general population-based cohort study included 899 individuals with HP infection at the baseline survey who were reported to have eradicated it at the 5-year follow-up survey. Of these, the medical records of 280 patients were available for investigation, and the HP eradication status of 93 individuals was ascertained. Their medical records were reviewed, and the reliability of the self-reported questionnaire responses was assessed. Of the 91 individuals who successfully eradicated HP based on the medical records, 90 (98.9%) answered the self-reported questionnaire correctly, with an unweighted kappa value of 0.661 (p < 0.001). The difference between the self-reported and medical records age at eradication was within a 1-year range in most participants (86.8%). Similarly, the HP eradication procedure and the outcomes were reasonably matched. In conclusion, the responses to the self-reported HP eradication questionnaire were almost consistent with the medical records. Thus, HP eradication history assessment by a self-reported questionnaire is reliable for an epidemiological study in the general population.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Angela Lanfranchi

In the past decade, two large prospective cohort studies of British and American women have been conducted which found a statistically significant increase in the risk of violent death in ever-users of hormonal contraceptives. Research on the effects of hormonal contraceptives upon the behaviors of intimate partners and on the physiology of women using hormonal contraceptives has provided insight into the possible basis for the resulting increase in violent death. This review examines the changes that are potential contributors to the reported increase.

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (8) ◽  
pp. 2636
Yantong Meng ◽  
Siqi Li ◽  
Jabir Khan ◽  
Zijian Dai ◽  
Chang Li ◽  

Although studies have examined the association between habitual consumption of sugar- (SSBs) and artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs) and health outcomes, the results are inconclusive. Here, we conducted a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies in order to summarize the relationship between SSBs and ASBs consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), and all-cause mortality. All relevant articles were systematically searched in PubMed, Embase, and Ovid databases until 20 June 2020. Thirty-four studies met the inclusion criteria and were eligible for analysis. Summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using random effects or fixed-effects model for highest versus lowest intake categories, as well as for linear and non-linear relationships. With each additional SSB and ASB serving per day, the risk increased by 27% (RR: 1.27, 95%CI: 1.15–1.41, I2 = 80.8%) and 13% (95%CI: 1.03–1.25, I2 = 78.7%) for T2D, 9% (RR: 1.09, 95%CI: 1.07–1.12, I2 = 42.7%) and 8% (RR: 1.08, 95%CI: 1.04–1.11, I2 = 45.5%) for CVDs, and 10% (RR: 1.10, 95%CI: 0.97–1.26, I2 = 86.3%) and 7% (RR: 1.07, 95%CI: 0.91–1.25, I2 = 76.9%) for all-cause mortality. Linear relationships were found for SSBs with T2D and CVDs. Non-linear relationships were found for ASBs with T2D, CVDs, and all-cause mortality and for SSBs with all-cause mortality. The findings from the current meta-analysis indicate that increased consumption of SSBs and ASBs is associated with the risk of T2D, CVDs, and all-cause mortality.

Chandra Prakash Rath ◽  
Madhusudhan Shivamallappa ◽  
Saravanan Muthusamy ◽  
Shripada C Rao ◽  
Sanjay Patole

ObjectiveTo explore the association between hyperglycaemia and adverse outcomes in very preterm infants.DesignSystematic review and meta-analysis. Data were pooled separately for adjusted and unadjusted odds ratios (ORs) using random-effects model. Subgroup analysis was conducted based on study design (cohort and case control).Main outcome measuresAssociation between hyperglycaemia in preterm neonates (<32 weeks or <1500 g) and mortality and morbidities.FindingsForty-six studies (30 cohort and 16 case control) with data from 34 527 infants were included. Meta-analysis of unadjusted ORs from cohort studies found hyperglycaemia to be significantly associated with mortality, any-grade intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH), severe IVH, any-stage retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), severe ROP, sepsis, chronic lung disease and disability. However, pooling of adjusted ORs found significant associations only for mortality (adjusted OR (CI): 2.37 (1.40 to 4.01); I2: 36%; 6 studies), ‘Any grade IVH’ (adjusted OR (CI): 2.60 (1.09 to 6.20); I2: 0%; 2 studies) and ‘Any stage ROP’ (adjusted OR (CI): 3.70 (1.55 to 8.84); I2: 0%; 2 studies). Meta-regression analysis found glucose levels >10 mmol/L to be associated with increased odds of mortality compared with <10 mmol/L. Pooled analysis from case–control studies were similar to cohort studies for most outcomes but limited by small sample size. Longer duration of hyperglycaemia was associated with adverse outcomes. GRADE of evidence was ‘Low’ or ‘Very low’.ConclusionHyperglycaemia in very preterm infants is associated with higher odds of mortality, any-grade IVH and any-stage ROP. A limitation was lack of availability of adjusted ORs from many of the included studies.PROSPERO registration numberCRD42020193016.

2021 ◽  
Ana Barbosa Mendes ◽  
Natalie Terzikhan ◽  
Pawel Sowa ◽  
Lukasz Kiszkiel ◽  
Robert Kondracki ◽  

Purpose: We provide a new multifaceted paradigm to implement Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) in medical sciences on the European level. This paper presents a roadmap from the perspective of cohort studies to combine RRI and crowdsourcing as converging approaches to promote inclusive innovation and citizen engagement in cohort research. Design: The learning organizations are three population-based cohort studies: Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) in Germany, the Rotterdam Study in the Netherlands and the Bialystok Polish Longitudinal University Study (PLUS) in Poland. These cohorts comprise a total of 28,000 participants and in total 58 years of data (start in 1997, 1990 and 2019, respectively). Firstly, we outline the envisaged mechanism of implementing RRI using a crowdsourcing methodology. Secondly, we present a (theoretical) model for sustainably implementing RRI in institutions, which will be applied as part of the JoinUs4Health project (01/21-12/23). Finally, we discuss barriers and opportunities encountered by cohort studies on the path towards a learning organization.Findings: We formulated an institutional change roadmap that can be used by partners in and outside the consortium with the aim to implement RRI practices. From the strategies outlined in the roadmap, we focused on three key aspects of the project that will benefit organizational learning in the participating institutions: 1) digital infrastructure for crowdsourcing; 2) local citizen engagement in science; 3) formal and non-formal science education for a range of stakeholder groups.Originality: The outputs of this paper provide a foundation to promote all disciplines of a learning organization based on education, team learning, dialogue, open discussion and systematic promotion of diversity on a European level. The engagement of various societal stakeholder groups in a co-creative manner and the outline of a roadmap and theoretical model provide a valuable basis to widen the degree of diversity in scientific learning organizations. The envisioned institutional changes mutually benefit society as a learning system as well as scientific partners as learning organizations. For societal actors, enhanced access to scientific skills and resources and empowerment to influence science are likely to strengthen the capacity of critical thinking and reflection across different societal groups and strata. For scientific partners, expected positive effects related to citizen input and commitment to participate in the cohort studies (enhanced response) may provide a competitive advantage over other cohorts.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Cen Su ◽  
Biao Jin ◽  
Haiping Xia ◽  
Kangren Zhao

<b><i>Background:</i></b> Previous studies have shown inconsistent results for associations between vitamin D and risk of stroke. We gathered the existing published articles and conducted this meta-analysis with the aim to explore the association between vitamin D and risk of stroke. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> We searched for articles exploring the association between vitamin D and risk of stroke and published before April 2021 in the following databases: PubMed, Web of Science, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. All statistical analyses were made using STATA 12.0 software. Q test and <i>I</i><sup><i>2</i></sup> were applied to examine heterogeneities between studies. <b><i>Results:</i></b> For the association between serum levels of 25(OH) vitamin D and risks of stroke, the present analysis included 20 cohort studies (including 213,276 participants) and a case-control analysis (including 13,642 participants). Additionally, the analysis included 15 studies (including 41,146 participants given vitamin D supplementation and 41,163 participants given placebo) to evaluate the influence of vitamin D supplementation on risk of stroke. Higher circulating levels of 25(OH) vitamin D were associated with a reduced risk of stroke (odds ratio/relative risk = 0.78, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.70–0.86, <i>I</i><sup><i>2</i></sup> = 41.5%, <i>p</i> = 0.025). However, the present analysis showed that vitamin D supplementation did not influence the risk of stroke (hazard ratio = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.96–1.14, <i>I</i><sup>2</sup> = 2.3%, <i>p</i> = 0.425). <b><i>Conclusions:</i></b> Our analysis indicated that lower circulating level of vitamin D was associated with an elevated risk of stroke, but extra supplement of vitamin D failed to show benefit in decreasing the risk of stroke. Further research and study are also needed to show the role of vitamin D in relation to stroke.

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (8) ◽  
pp. 2623
Chengyao Tang ◽  
Xiaowen Wang ◽  
Li-Qiang Qin ◽  
Jia-Yi Dong

The association of the Mediterranean diet (MD) with mortality among people with a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has not been systematically examined. Hereby, our objective was to investigate the association of MD with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in people with a history of CVD. We searched five electronic databases including Embase, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to screen eligible studies published before 31 August 2020. A random-effect model was used to examine the association of a 2-unit increment in MD score with the risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. We conducted sensitivity and subgroup analyses and examined potential publication bias by Egger’s and Begg’s tests. Seven cohort studies (eight datasets) with a total of 37,879 participants who had a history of CVD were eligible for the main analysis. The pooled hazard ratios were 0.85 (95% CIs: 0.78–0.93; n = 8) for all-cause mortality and 0.91 (95% CIs; 0.82–1.01; n = 4) for cardiovascular mortality for each 2-unit increment in a score of adherence to MD. Subgroup analyses for all-cause mortality showed that the association appeared relatively stronger in Mediterranean areas (HR = 0.76 [0.69–0.83]) than non-Mediterranean areas (HR = 0.95 [0.93–0.98]) and in studies with a shorter duration (HR = 0.75 [0.66–0.84] for <7 years vs. HR = 0.94 [0.91–0.98] for ≥7 years). No evidence of publication bias was observed. The present meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies provided evidence that adherence to MD improved survival in people with a history of CVD.

Neurology ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 10.1212/WNL.0000000000012415
Fangfang Zhang ◽  
Lili Liu ◽  
Chundong Zhang ◽  
Shiliang Ji ◽  
Zubing Mei ◽  

Objective:Since metabolic syndrome is a significant risk factor for cardio-cerebrovascular diseases, and the relationship between metabolic syndrome (including its components) and the prognosis of stroke are controversial, this study was conducted to evaluate whether metabolic syndrome is associated with a high recurrence and mortality of stroke.Methods:This study was registered in the PROSPERO database (CRD42020177118). We searched for relevant observational cohort studies published from inception to April 23, 2020 using PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. Effect estimates with 95% CIs were pooled using the random-effects model. The primary and secondary outcomes were stroke recurrence and all-cause mortality, respectively. Leave-one-out sensitivity analyses and nonparametric trim and fill method were used to identify the stability of the results.Results:Thirteen cohort studies comprising 59,919 participants aged >60 years were included for analysis. Overall, metabolic syndrome was significantly associated with stroke recurrence (RR 1.46, 95% CI 1.07-1.97, P = 0.02). Among the metabolic syndrome components, low levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (RR 1.32, 95% CI 1.11-1.57, P = 0.002) and number of metabolic syndrome components(≥ 2) (RR 1.68, 95% CI 1.44-1.94, P <0.001) significantly predicted stroke recurrence, whereas elevated triglyceride, elevated waist circumference, hyperglycemia, or hypertension failed to account for risk factors for stroke recurrence. Moreover, metabolic syndrome, not its components, was significantly associated with all-cause mortality (RR 1.27, 95% CI 1.18-1.36, P < 0.001). The stability of these results was further confirmed by the leave-one-out sensitivity analyses and nonparametric trim and fill method.Conclusions:The present study indicates that metabolic syndrome and some of its components (low HDL-C and number of metabolic syndrome components) seem to be risk factors for stroke recurrence. Though metabolic syndrome is also associated with all-cause mortality, the role of its components to predict all-cause mortality deserves further study.

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