wall shear stress
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Haifeng Wang ◽  
Klemens Uhlmann ◽  
Vijay Vedula ◽  
Daniel Balzani ◽  
Fathollah Varnik

AbstractTissue degradation plays a crucial role in vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and aneurysms. Computational modeling of vascular hemodynamics incorporating both arterial wall mechanics and tissue degradation has been a challenging task. In this study, we propose a novel finite element method-based approach to model the microscopic degradation of arterial walls and its interaction with blood flow. The model is applied to study the combined effects of pulsatile flow and tissue degradation on the deformation and intra-aneurysm hemodynamics. Our computational analysis reveals that tissue degradation leads to a weakening of the aneurysmal wall, which manifests itself in a larger deformation and a smaller von Mises stress. Moreover, simulation results for different heart rates, blood pressures and aneurysm geometries indicate consistently that, upon tissue degradation, wall shear stress increases near the flow-impingement region and decreases away from it. These findings are discussed in the context of recent reports regarding the role of both high and low wall shear stress for the progression and rupture of aneurysms.

Claudio Chiastra ◽  
Valentina Mazzi ◽  
Maurizio Lodi Rizzini ◽  
Karol Calò ◽  
Anna Corti ◽  

Abstract Despite the important advancements in the stent technology for the treatment of diseased coronary arteries, major complications still affect the post-operative long-term outcome. The stent-induced flow disturbances, and especially the altered wall shear stress (WSS) profile at the strut level, play an important role in the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to stent thrombosis (ST) and in-stent restenosis (ISR). In this context, the analysis of the WSS topological skeleton is gaining more and more interest by extending the current understanding of the association between local hemodynamics and vascular diseases. The present study aims to analyze the impact that a deployed coronary stent has on the WSS topological skeleton. Computational fluid dynamics simulations were performed in three stented human coronary artery geometries reconstructed from clinical images. The selected cases presented stents with different designs (i.e., two contemporary drug eluting stents and one bioresorbable scaffold) and included regions with stent malapposition or overlapping. A recently proposed Eulerian-based approach was applied to analyze the WSS topological skeleton features. The results highlighted that the presence of single or multiple stents within a coronary artery markedly impacts the WSS topological skeleton. In particular, repetitive patterns of WSS divergence were observed at the luminal surface, highlighting a WSS contraction action proximal to the struts and a WSS expansion action distal to the struts. This WSS action pattern was independent from the stent design. In conclusions, these findings could contribute to a deeper understanding of the hemodynamic-driven processes underlying ST and ISR.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 307
Jermiah J. Joseph ◽  
Timothy J. Hunter ◽  
Clara Sun ◽  
Daniel Goldman ◽  
Sanjay R. Kharche ◽  

Background: We developed a hemodynamic mathematical model of human circulation coupled to a virtual hemodialyzer. The model was used to explore mechanisms underlying our clinical observations involving hemodialysis. Methods: The model consists of whole body human circulation, baroreflex feedback control, and a hemodialyzer. Four model populations encompassing baseline, dialysed, therapeutic hypothermia treated, and simultaneous dialysed with hypothermia were generated. In all populations atrial fibrillation and renal failure as co-morbidities, and exercise as a treatment were simulated. Clinically relevant measurables were used to quantify the effects of each in silico experiment. Sensitivity analysis was used to uncover the most relevant parameters. Results: Relative to baseline, the modelled dialysis increased the population mean diastolic blood pressure by 5%, large vessel wall shear stress by 6%, and heart rate by 20%. Therapeutic hypothermia increased systolic blood pressure by 3%, reduced large vessel shear stress by 15%, and did not affect heart rate. Therapeutic hypothermia reduced wall shear stress by 15% in the aorta and 6% in the kidneys, suggesting a potential anti-inflammatory benefit. Therapeutic hypothermia reduced cardiac output under atrial fibrillation by 12% and under renal failure by 20%. Therapeutic hypothermia and exercise did not affect dialyser function, but increased water removal by approximately 40%. Conclusions: This study illuminates some mechanisms of the action of therapeutic hypothermia. It also suggests clinical measurables that may be used as surrogates to diagnose underlying diseases such as atrial fibrillation.

Kezhou Song ◽  
Ari Jokilaakso

AbstractThere has been a great deal of focus on the optimization of tuyere arrangements in SKS bottom blown copper smelting furnaces since the last decade, as the improved furnace operation efficiency of SKS technology has potential that cannot be ignored. New –x + 0 + x deg tuyere arrangements with 14 tuyeres are proposed in this research paper. Using a previously verified numerical model, CFD tests on the velocity distribution and wall shear stress for scaled-down SKS furnace models were conducted, with a constant total volumetric gas flow rate, and different operating parameters and furnace cross-section geometries. The results indicate that, at a relatively low gas injection speed compared with the previously optimized tuyere arrangement, although the –x +0 +x deg tuyere arrangements are unable to supply enhanced agitation in the typical round furnaces, they achieve better performance in elliptical furnaces. At a comparatively higher gas injection speed, the – x + 0 + x deg tuyere arrangements can improve the agitation performance in a round furnace while maintaining an acceptable wall shear stress on the bottom and side wall. The agitation enhancement with the − x +0 +x deg tuyere arrangements can essentially be attributed to stronger interactions between bubble plumes and furnace side walls. To further exploit the advantages of the new tuyere arrangements, an optimized tuyere angle was confirmed by a full-scale furnace model simulation.

2021 ◽  
Chandan Kumawat ◽  
Bhupendra Kumar Sharma ◽  
Khalid Saad Mekheimer

Abstract A two-phase blood flow model is considered to analyze the fluid flow and heat transfer in a curved tube with time-variant stenosis. In both core and plasma regions, the variable viscosity model ( Hematocrit and non linear temperature-dependent, respectively) is considered. A toroidal coordinate system is considered to describe the governing equations. The perturbation technique in terms of perturbation parameter ε is used to obtain the temperature profile of blood flow. In order to find the velocity, wall shear stress and impedance profiles, a second-order finite difference method is employed with the accuracy of 10−6 in the each iteration. Under the conditions of fully-developed flow and mild stenosis, the significance of various physical parameters on the blood velocity, temperature, wall shear stress (WSS) and impedance are investigated with the help of graphs. A validation of our results has been presented and comparison has been made with the previously published work and present study, and it revels the good agreement with published work. The present mathematical study suggested that arterial curvature increase the fear of deposition of plaque (atherosclerosis), while, the use of thermal radiation in heat therapies lowers this risk. The positive add in the value of λ1 causes to increase in plasma viscosity; as a result, blood flow velocity in the stenosed artery decreases due to the assumption of temperature-dependent viscosity of the plasma region. Clinical researchers and biologists can adopt the present mathematical study to lower the risk of lipid deposition, predict cardiovascular disease risk and current state of disease by understanding the symptomatic spectrum, and then diagnose patients based on the risk.

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