shear stress
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2022 ◽  
Vol 218 ◽  
pp. 105292
Sanghyun Lee ◽  
Maria L. Chu ◽  
Jorge A. Guzman ◽  
Dennis C. Flanagan

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 256
Bommanna G. Krishnappan

In this paper, a review of a semi-empirical modelling approach for cohesive sediment transport in river systems is presented. The mathematical modelling of cohesive sediment transport is a challenge because of the number of governing parameters controlling the various transport processes involved in cohesive sediment, and hence a semi-empirical approach is a viable option. A semi-empirical model of cohesive sediment called the RIVFLOC model developed by Krishnappan is reviewed and the model parameters that need to be determined using a rotating circular flume are highlighted. The parameters that were determined using a rotating circular flume during the application of the RIVFLOC model to different river systems include the critical shear stress for erosion of the cohesive sediment, critical shear stress for deposition according to the definition of Partheniades, critical shear stress for deposition according to the definition of Krone, the cohesion parameter governing the flocculation of cohesive sediment and a set of empirical parameters that define the density of the floc in terms of the size of the flocs. An examination of the variability of these parameters shows the need for testing site-specific sediments using a rotating circular flume to achieve a reliable prediction of the RIVFLOC model. Application of the model to various river systems has highlighted the need for including the entrapment process in a cohesive sediment transport model.

2022 ◽  
Bandita Naik ◽  
Vijay Kaushik ◽  
Munendra Kumar

Abstract The computation of the boundary shear stress distribution in an open channel flow is required for a variety of applications, including the flow resistance relationship and the construction of stable channels. The river breaches the main channel and spills across the floodplain during overbank flow conditions on both sides. Due to the momentum shift between the primary channel and adjacent floodplains, the flow structure in such compound channels becomes complicated. This has a profound impact on the shear stress distribution in the floodplain and main channel subsections. In addition, agriculture and development activities have occurred in floodplain parts of a river system. As a consequence, the geometry of the floodplain changes over the length of the flow, resulting in a converging compound channel. Traditional formulas, which rely heavily on empirical approaches, are ineffective in predicting shear force distribution with high precision. As a result, innovative and precise approaches are still in great demand. The boundary shear force carried by floodplains is estimated by gene expression programming (GEP) in this paper. In terms of non-dimensional geometric and flow variables, a novel equation is constructed to forecast boundary shear force distribution. The proposed GEP-based method is found to be best when compared to conventional methods. The findings indicate that the predicted percentage shear force carried by floodplains determined using GEP is in good agreement with the experimental data compared to the conventional formulas (R2 = 0.96 and RMSE = 3.395 for the training data and R2 = 0.95 and RMSE = 4.022 for the testing data).

Development ◽  
2022 ◽  
Alexandre Souchaud ◽  
Arthur Boutillon ◽  
Gaëlle Charron ◽  
Atef Asnacios ◽  
Camille Nous ◽  

To investigate the role of mechanical constraints in morphogenesis and development, we develop a pipeline of techniques based on incompressible elastic sensors. These techniques combine the advantages of incompressible liquid droplets, which have been used as precise in situ shear stress sensors, and of elastic compressible beads, which are easier to tune and to use. Droplets of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mix, made fluorescent through specific covalent binding to a rhodamin dye, are produced by a microfluidics device. The elastomer rigidity after polymerization is adjusted to the tissue rigidity. Its mechanical properties are carefully calibrated in situ, for a sensor embedded in a cell aggregate submitted to uniaxial compression. Thelocal shear stress tensor is retrieved from the sensor shape, accurately reconstructed through an active contour method. In vitro, within cell aggregates, and in vivo, in the prechordal plate of the Zebrafish embryo during gastrulation,our pipeline of techniques demonstrates its efficiency to directly measure the three dimensional shear stress repartition within a tissue.

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