Term Outcome
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Daan Kremer ◽  
Adrian Post ◽  
Ulrike Seidel ◽  
Patricia Huebbe ◽  
Yvonne van der Veen ◽  

Abstract Purpose In a search for potentially modifiable factors to improve long-term outcome among kidney transplant recipients (KTR), we hypothesized that boron exposure is associated with improved long-term outcome in KTR. Methods We determined 24 h urinary boron excretion using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry as a measure of boron exposure in 693 stable KTR (57% male, mean age 53y), enrolled in the TransplantLines Food and Nutrition Biobank and Cohort Study. Dietary intake was assessed using validated food-frequency questionnaires. Results Linear regression analyses showed that dietary intake of fruit, wine and nuts were key determinants of boron excretion. In addition, boron excretion was negatively correlated with homocysteine and inflammatory parameters. In total, 73 (32%), 47 (20%) and 30 (13%) KTR died among the lowest, middle and highest tertiles of 24 h urinary boron excretion, respectively (Plog-rank < 0.001). Cox regression analyses showed that high boron excretion was strongly associated with lower risk of mortality, independent of age, sex, estimated glomerular filtration rate and history of cardiovascular disease (HR per doubling: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.40 to 0.66, P < 0.001). Conclusion Boron may be an overlooked target to improve long-term survival among KTR and potentially other patients, likely through pathways other than inflammation or the methionine-homocysteine cycle that were previously suggested. Interventional trials are warranted to confirm the potential of dietary boron supplementation in KTR and other patient populations.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (8) ◽  
pp. 379-387
Yorrick P. Bourgonjen ◽  
J. Fred F. Hooning van Duyvenbode ◽  
Bruce van Dijk ◽  
F. Ruben H. A. Nurmohamed ◽  
Ewout S. Veltman ◽  

Abstract. Introduction: Two-stage revision surgery is the most frequently performed procedure in patients with a chronic periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). The infection eradication rates in the current literature differ between 54 % and 100 %, which could be attributed to different treatment strategies. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the infection eradication rate in patients with chronic PJI treated with two-stage revision surgery of the hip or knee in primary and re-revision cases. Methods: All patients treated with a two-stage revision for chronic PJI between 2005 and 2011 were analysed. Patient and infection characteristics were retrieved. Primary outcome was successful infection eradication at last follow-up. Successful eradication is specified as no need for subsequent revision surgery or suppressive antibiotic treatment. Results: Forty-seven patients were treated with a two-stage revision. Infection eradication was achieved in 36 out of 47 cases. Thirty-eight patients had positive cultures: 35 monomicrobial infections and 3 polymicrobial infections. Nine cases of culture-negative infections were identified. Accompanying eradication rates were 26 out of 35 cases, 2 out of 3 cases, and 8 out of 9 cases respectively. Mean follow-up was 128 (27–186) months. For hip and knee revisions the eradication rates were 22 out of 31 cases and 14 out of 16 cases respectively. After primary arthroplasty the infection was eradicated in 29 out of 38 cases and after re-revision in 7 out of 9 cases. Conclusion: In this study, the infection eradication rate for two-stage revision surgery after PJI of the hip and knee in primary and re-revision cases was 77 %. No statistically significant patient, infection and micro-organism characteristics were found which influence the infection eradication rates at long-term follow-up of 128 (27–186) months.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Oliver Djurhuus Tupper ◽  
Charlotte Suppli Ulrik

Abstract Background We aimed to explore long-term predictors of severe exacerbations and mortality in adults with well-characterised asthma. Study design and methods Adults (aged ≥ 15) with an objectively verified diagnosis of asthma were recruited from a Danish respiratory outpatient clinic between 1974 and 1990. All individuals were followed in Danish registries for vital status, hospital admissions for asthma and cause of death until end of 2017. Predictors of exacerbations were obtained from a repeated measures model. Standardised mortality rates (SMR) for all-causes were compared with the Danish background population. Hazard ratios for mortality were obtained from a cox proportional hazards model in a two-step process. Results At baseline, the cohort comprised 1071 patients (mean age 38, SD 16, 61% women), of whom 357 (33%) died during follow-up, with 93 (26%) dying from asthma (primary diagnosis). We found an SMR of 1.24 (95% CI 1.11–1.37, p < 0.001) for all-cause mortality. Baseline predictors for asthma-related death and repeated severe exacerbations were increasing age, ever smoker, FEV1 < 80% pred., high blood eosinophils, longer duration of symptoms and use of SABA > twice daily. Being non-atopic, having a positive histamine challenge test and symptoms more than twice a week were also predictors of repeated exacerbations. Conclusions Markers of poor asthma control, including high use of SABA, are predictors of long-term exacerbation rate and mortality over 30 years in patients with well-characterised asthma. Improving asthma control, including lung function and reducing use of reliever medication, is vital for improving the long-term outcome of asthma.

Cureus ◽  
2021 ◽  
Taichi Nakazawa ◽  
Hiraku Funakoshi ◽  
Chinami Sakurai ◽  
Koki Iwata ◽  
Satsuki Yamazaki ◽  

Ramisetty Uma Mahesh ◽  
Vishnu Vandana Matli

Background: Neonatal acidaemia at birth will increase the neonatal morbidity and mortality. It is a predictive marker of neonatal asphyxia. The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between cord blood gas analysis and neonatal outcome.Methods: A prospective hospital based observational study conducted in 150 term newborns. Cord Blood gas levels were examined, pH of 7.25 was observed in 70 samples. The primary outcomes measured were the percentage of NICU admission, need for resuscitation, convulsions, and encephalopathy.Results: Primary outcome of NICU admission, need for resuscitation, and delay in attaining full feeds were observed to have statistical significance. The majority of the babies had pH levels that were within the normal range and had a healthy outcome. NICU admission and the need for resuscitation were observed in babies from group with acidic pH (<7.25).Conclusions: Cord blood analysis had prognostic significance in predicting outcomes in the new-born period.  

Alexandra Y. Kreins ◽  
Helena F. Velasco ◽  
Kai-Ning Cheong ◽  
Kanchan Rao ◽  
Paul Veys ◽  

Abstract Unconditioned hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the recommended treatment for patients with adenosine deaminase (ADA)-deficient severe combined immunodeficiency with an HLA-matched sibling donor (MSD) or family donor (MFD). Improved overall survival (OS) has been reported compared to the use of unrelated donors, and previous studies have demonstrated that adequate cellular and humoral immune recovery can be achieved even in the absence of conditioning. Detailed insight of the long-term outcome is still limited. We aim to address this by studying a large single-center cohort of 28 adenosine deaminase-deficient patients who underwent a total of 31 HSCT procedures, of which more than half were unconditioned. We report an OS of 85.7% and event-free survival of 71% for the entire cohort, with no statistically significant differences after procedures using related or unrelated HLA-matched donors. We find that donor engraftment in the myeloid compartment is significantly diminished in unconditioned procedures, which typically use a MSD or MFD. This is associated with poor metabolic correction and more frequent failure to discontinue immunoglobulin replacement therapy. Approximately one in four patients receiving an unconditioned procedure required a second procedure, whereas the use of reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) prior to allogeneic transplantation improves the long-term outcome by achieving better myeloid engraftment, humoral immune recovery, and metabolic correction. Further longitudinal studies are needed to optimize future management and guidelines, but our findings support a potential role for the routine use of RIC in most ADA-deficient patients receiving an HLA-identical hematopoietic stem cell transplant, even when a MSD or MFD is available.

Georg Fuellen ◽  
Jan Böhmert ◽  
Larissa Henze ◽  
Daniel Palmer ◽  
Uwe Walter ◽  

The most important predictors for outcomes after ischemic stroke, that is, for health deterioration and death, are chronological age and stroke severity; gender, genetics and lifestyle / environmental factors also play a role. Of all these, only the latter can be influenced after the event, even though recurrent stroke may be prevented by antiaggregant/anticoagulant therapy, angioplasty of high-grade stenoses, and treatment of cardiovascular risk factors. Moreover, blood cell composition and protein biomarkers such as C-reactive protein or interleukins in serum are frequently considered as biomarkers of outcome. We surveyed protein biomarkers that were reported to be predictive for outcome after ischemic stroke, specifically considering biomarkers that predict long-term outcome (&ge;3 months) and that are measured over the first days following the event. We classified the protein biomarkers as immune‑inflammatory, coagulation-related, and adhesion-related biomarkers. Some of these biomarkers are closely related to cellular senescence and, in particular, to the inflammatory processes that can be triggered by senescent cells. Moreover, the processes that underlie inflammation, hypercoagulation and cellular senescence connect stroke to cancer, and biomarkers of cancer-associated thromboembolism, as well as of sarcopenia, overlap strongly with the biomarkers discussed here. Finally, we demonstrate that most of the outcome-predicting protein biomarkers form a close-meshed functional interaction network, suggesting that the outcome after stroke is partially determined by an interplay of molecular processes relating to inflammation, coagulation, cell adhesion and cellular senescence.

2021 ◽  
Joohyun Woo ◽  
Byung-In Moon ◽  
Hyungju Kwon ◽  
Woosung Lim

Abstract The optimal sequence of chemotherapy (CT) and radiotherapy (RT) after surgery in breast cancer patients is unclear. There is a lack of literature on RT given between anthracycline and taxane administration. We evaluated the effect of RT sequence on long-term outcome in breast cancer. Two hundred patients who underwent surgery between January 2009 and December 2012 for node-positive breast cancers were evaluated retrospectively. All patients were treated with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (AC) followed by taxane. Sandwich RT group that received RT between AC and taxane was compared to the group that received RT after CT. The mean follow-up period was 105.4 months. The locoregional recurrence (LRR) rate was lower in sandwich RT group (P=0.012) and there was no significant difference in distant metastasis between the two groups. The RT sequence was an important predictor for LRR in multivariable analysis (P=0.017). For luminal A subtype, disease-free survival (DFS) was better in sandwich RT group than in CT followed by RT group (P=0.001). The overall survival did not correlated with RT sequence regardless of subtype. Sandwich RT can offer DFS benefit in luminal A subtype breast cancer. A tailored approach of sequencing chemotherapy and radiotherapy would be needed considering the factors that can influence outcome.

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