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2022 ◽  
Vol 97 ◽  
pp. 12-16
Sita Jayalakshmi ◽  
Anuja Patil ◽  
Anusha Challa ◽  
Mihir Parekh ◽  
Harsh Khandelia ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 30 ◽  
pp. 100826
Patryk Lipiński ◽  
Agnieszka Różdżyńska-Świątkowska ◽  
Katarzyna Iwanicka-Pronicka ◽  
Barbara Perkowska ◽  
Paulina Pokora ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 325-332
Shaoli Sarker

Aim: The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between sleep patterns and behavioral difficulties in children with ASD using sleep disturbance treatments. Methods: We selected a total 41 children with sleep disorders as study population. The sleep services (behavioral sleep management techniques) were given by the child development center team of Dhaka Shishu Hospital comprising of physician , developmental therapist and psychologist. Children were split into eight groups and two gender divisions based on their age, and they were then studied over a period of 6 months . Sleep disorders were investigated both before and after intervention. Results: The results revealed that the children’s sleep dysfunction improved from before, with the lowest improvement percentage decreasing from 62.9 percent to 51.8 percent and the greatest improvement percentage increasing from 100 percent to 59.2 percent, whereas a sleep problem showed no change at all (sleepwalking). Conclusion: The study has tried and succeeded to an extent to intervene in the sleep dysfunction process of children with ASD in a tertiary care hospital. However, there is still much to learn about the clinical efficacy of these types of behavioral interventions in children with ASD who have sleep disruption.

Metabolites ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 78
Taylor A. Vadset ◽  
Ajay Rajaram ◽  
Chuan-Heng Hsiao ◽  
Miriah Kemigisha Katungi ◽  
Joshua Magombe ◽  

Infant hydrocephalus poses a severe global health burden; 80% of cases occur in the developing world where patients have limited access to neurosurgical care. Surgical treatment combining endoscopic third ventriculostomy and choroid plexus cauterization (ETV/CPC), first practiced at CURE Children’s Hospital of Uganda (CCHU), is as effective as standard ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) placement while requiring fewer resources and less post-operative care. Although treatment focuses on controlling ventricle size, this has little association with treatment failure or long-term outcome. This study aims to monitor the progression of hydrocephalus and treatment response, and investigate the association between cerebral physiology, brain growth, and neurodevelopmental outcomes following surgery. We will enroll 300 infants admitted to CCHU for treatment. All patients will receive pre/post-operative measurements of cerebral tissue oxygenation (SO2), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO2) using frequency-domain near-infrared combined with diffuse correlation spectroscopies (FDNIRS-DCS). Infants will also receive brain imaging, to monitor tissue/ventricle volume, and neurodevelopmental assessments until two years of age. This study will provide a foundation for implementing cerebral physiological monitoring to establish evidence-based guidelines for hydrocephalus treatment. This paper outlines the protocol, clinical workflow, data management, and analysis plan of this international, multi-center trial.

2022 ◽  
Charlotta Pisinger ◽  
Sofie Kirstine Bergman Rasmussen

Abstract Background: A high prevalence of dual use (DU) of e-cigarettes and conventional cigarettes has been reported across the world. In some countries most users of e-cigarettes are dual users (DUs). We wanted to investigate the health effects of DU and compare with the health effects of exclusive smoking of conventional cigarettes (ESCC). Methods: A systematic search was carried out in PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Cochrane library. The last search was conducted on April 26, 2021. We included original articles on any topic relevant to health, in all languages. Reviewers independently assessed the main risks of bias without the use of automated tools. We followed the PRISMA guidelines. Both reviewers independently screened and read all publications. Results: Fifty-five publications (52 studies) were included, 12 of the studies were prospective. There was great heterogeneity across studies both in methodology and outcome. Several studies, especially experimental studies with short-term outcome, found higher levels of harmful substances in ESCC than in DUs, however, the two largest population-based studies, with low risk of selection-bias, found higher levels of harmful substances in DUs than in ESCC. Most studies investigating symptoms or risk of disease were large population-based surveys. One study found that DUs reported a significantly better health than ESCC, while fifteen found a higher risk of e.g., pulmonary, cardiovascular or metabolic risk factors/symptoms, self-reported general health or cancer in DUs than in ESCC. The study with the longest follow-up, six years, found that DUs had an adjusted odds ratio of 1.48 (95% confidence interval 0.81–2.70) of a possibly smoking-related disease (confirmed by hospital discharge abstracts) compared with ESCC. Many methodological weaknesses were identified, such as risk of reverse causality. We found a correlation between high tobacco consumption in DUs and findings of negative health outcomes.Conclusion: Due to many methodological weaknesses, it is difficult to draw any strong conclusions, but the results indicate that DU might be as or even more harmful than ESCC. Well-designed longitudinal studies are needed. Before recommending EC for smoking cessation health authorities should consider the high risk of DU and its potential consequences.

Claudio Chiastra ◽  
Valentina Mazzi ◽  
Maurizio Lodi Rizzini ◽  
Karol Calò ◽  
Anna Corti ◽  

Abstract Despite the important advancements in the stent technology for the treatment of diseased coronary arteries, major complications still affect the post-operative long-term outcome. The stent-induced flow disturbances, and especially the altered wall shear stress (WSS) profile at the strut level, play an important role in the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to stent thrombosis (ST) and in-stent restenosis (ISR). In this context, the analysis of the WSS topological skeleton is gaining more and more interest by extending the current understanding of the association between local hemodynamics and vascular diseases. The present study aims to analyze the impact that a deployed coronary stent has on the WSS topological skeleton. Computational fluid dynamics simulations were performed in three stented human coronary artery geometries reconstructed from clinical images. The selected cases presented stents with different designs (i.e., two contemporary drug eluting stents and one bioresorbable scaffold) and included regions with stent malapposition or overlapping. A recently proposed Eulerian-based approach was applied to analyze the WSS topological skeleton features. The results highlighted that the presence of single or multiple stents within a coronary artery markedly impacts the WSS topological skeleton. In particular, repetitive patterns of WSS divergence were observed at the luminal surface, highlighting a WSS contraction action proximal to the struts and a WSS expansion action distal to the struts. This WSS action pattern was independent from the stent design. In conclusions, these findings could contribute to a deeper understanding of the hemodynamic-driven processes underlying ST and ISR.

2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
pp. 0-0
Preeti Chhabria ◽  
Ketan Vijay Kargirwar ◽  
Nirankar Bhutaka ◽  
Divya Gopal ◽  
Mayur H Patel

Denise Schlee ◽  
Till-Martin Theilen ◽  
Henning Fiegel ◽  
Martin Hutter ◽  
Udo Rolle

Summary Esophageal atresia (EA) is a rare congenital disease which is usually not of the detected prenatally. Due to the lack of prenatal diagnosis, some newborns with EA are born outside of specialized centers. Nevertheless, centralized care of EA has been proposed, even if a clear volume–outcome association in EA management remains unconfirmed. Furthermore, whether outcomes differ between outborn and inborn patients with EA has not been systematically investigated. Therefore, this single-center, retrospective study aimed to investigate EA management and outcomes with a special focus on inborn versus outborn patients. The following data were extracted from the medical records of infants with EA from 2009 to 2019: EA type, associated anomalies, complications, and long-term outcome. Patients were allocated into inborn and outborn groups. Altogether, 57 patients were included. Five patients were excluded (referral before surgery, loss of data, death before surgery [n = 1], and incorrect diagnosis [diverticulum, n = 1]). Among all patients, the overall survival rate was 96%, with no mortalities among outborn patients. The overall hospitalization period was shorter for outborn patients. The median follow-up durations were 3.8 years and 3.2 years for inborn and outborn patients, respectively. Overall, 15% of patients underwent delayed primary anastomosis (long-gap atresia [n = 4] and other reasons [n = 4]). Early complications included three anastomotic leakages and one post-operative fistula; 28% of patients developed strictures, which required dilatation, and 38% of patients showed relevant gastroesophageal reflux, which required fundoplication, without any differences between the groups. The two groups had comparable low mortality and expected high morbidity with no significant differences in outcome. The outborn group showed nonsignificant trends toward lower morbidity and shorter hospitalization periods, which might be explained by the overall better clinical status.

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