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2021 ◽  
Vol 46 ◽  
pp. S614
E. Scarpellini ◽  
M. Basilico ◽  
S. Tiberi ◽  
N. Giostra ◽  
A. AVIS ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (12) ◽  
pp. e0009961
Elizabeth Ajema Chebichi Luvai ◽  
Aung Kyaw Kyaw ◽  
Nundu Sabiti Sabin ◽  
Fuxun Yu ◽  
Saw Wut Hmone ◽  

Introduction Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne virus known to cause acute febrile illness associated with debilitating polyarthritis. In 2019, several institutions in Myanmar reported a CHIKV outbreak. There are no official reports of CHIKV cases between 2011 and 2018. Therefore, this study sought to determine the seroprevalence of CHIKV infection before the 2019 outbreak. Methods A total of 1,544 serum samples were collected from healthy volunteers and patients with febrile illnesses in Yangon, Mandalay, and the Myeik district in 2013, 2015, and 2018. Participants ranged from one month to 65 years of age. Antibody screening was performed with in-house anti-CHIKV IgG and IgM ELISA. A neutralization assay was used as a confirmatory test. Results The seroprevalence of anti-CHIKV IgM and anti-CHIKV IgG was 8.9% and 28.6%, respectively, with an overall seropositivity rate of 34.5%. A focus reduction neutralization assay confirmed 32.5% seroprevalence of CHIKV in the study population. Age, health status, and region were significantly associated with neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) and CHIKV seropositivity (p < 0.05), while gender was not (p = 0.9). Seroprevalence in 2013, 2015, and 2018 was 32.1%, 28.8%, and 37.3%, respectively. Of the clinical symptoms observed in participants with fevers, arthralgia was mainly noted in CHIKV-seropositive patients. Conclusion The findings in this study reveal the circulation of CHIKV in Myanmar’s Mandalay, Yangon, and Myeik regions before the 2019 CHIKV outbreak. As no treatment or vaccine for CHIKV exists, the virus must be monitored through systematic surveillance in Myanmar.

2021 ◽  
Vol 46 ◽  
pp. S667
J. Rodriguez ◽  
A.M. Neyrinck ◽  
Z. Zhang ◽  
L.B. Bindels ◽  
P.D. Cani ◽  

2021 ◽  
Katharina Brech ◽  
Elena K. Enax-Krumova ◽  
Lynn Eitner ◽  
Jan Vollert ◽  
Christoph Maier ◽  

Abstract Objective: Pain-related evoked potentials (PREP) are increasingly used to investigate nociception and small-fibre function. Due to lack of a standard stimulation protocol, it is unclear whether results from studies using different protocols are comparable. Aim of the study was to assess the influence of different stimulation parameters on N1P1-amplitudes, N1-latencies and PREP-induced pain intensity. Methods: In a cross-over design we examined 31 healthy volunteers using four different stimulation protocols (number of stimulation electrodes 1 vs. 3, stimulus durations 200 µs vs. 500 µs) in a randomized order. Statistics: paired t-test, ANOVA, correlation analyses. Results: Longer stimulus duration induced higher N1P1-amplitudes (p<0.05) and higher pain intensity (p<0.001). Stimulation with 3 electrodes lead to a lower pain intensity (p<0.01), whereas the N1P1-amplitude and stimulus intensity at twofold of individual pain remained unaffected by the number of electrodes. Also, there was no relation between stimulus intensities and N1P1-amplitudes (one electrode: r=0.079; p=0.646, three electrodes: r=-0.10, p=0.70) was observed. N1-latencies remained comparable between the four protocols.Conclusions and Significance: The use of different stimulation protocols for PREP is limited by relevant differences in the N1P1-amplitudes and evoked pain intensities. Standard consented stimulation protocols are needed to allow data comparison between different labs and studies.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Lanhua Kang ◽  
Ning Li ◽  
Lexiu Wang

Background. This study is aimed at exploring the significance of the expression of miR-23a and miR-146a in patients with periodontitis and their correlations with inflammatory factors. Methods. A total of 120 patients with chronic periodontitis admitted to the department of stomatology in Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital from August 2017 to December 2018 were enrolled as a study group, and 80 healthy volunteers in physical examination during the same period were enrolled as a control group. The expression of miR-23a, miR-146a, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-17 (IL-17) in the saliva of people in the two groups was determined using the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results. The study group showed significantly higher relative expression of saliva miR-23a and miR-146a than the control group. The area under the curve (AUC) of saliva miR-23a and miR-146a for diagnosing periodontitis was 0.857 and 0.886, respectively. The expression of saliva miR-23a and miR-146a increased with the deterioration of periodontitis in the patients. After basic treatment, the study group showed significantly decreased expression of saliva miR-23a and miR-146a. Patients in the study group showed significantly higher levels of saliva IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-17 than those in the control group, and their saliva miR-23a and miR-146a were positively correlated with their saliva IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-17, respectively. Conclusion. Saliva miR-23a and miR-146a can be used as biomarkers for the diagnosis and assessment of periodontitis, and they may have regulatory relationships with IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-17.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-11
S. Nardi-Hiebl ◽  
J. W. Ndieyira ◽  
Y. Al Enzi ◽  
W. Al Akkad ◽  
T. Koch ◽  

Background. For more than 60 years, the synthetic opioid fentanyl has been widely used in anaesthesia and analgesia. While the intravenous formulation is primarily used for general anaesthesia and intensive care settings, the drug’s high lipophilic properties also allow various noninvasive routes of administration. Published data suggest that intranasal administration is also attractive for use as intranasal patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). A newly developed intranasal fentanyl formulation containing 47 μg fentanyl, intravenous fentanyl, and oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate were characterised, and bioavailability was compared to assess the suitability of the intranasal formulation for an intranasal PCA product. Methods. 27 healthy volunteers were enrolled in a single-centre, open-label, randomised (order of treatments), single-dose study in a three-period crossover design. The pharmacokinetics of one intranasal puff of fentanyl formulation (47 μg, 140 mL per puff), one short intravenous infusion of 50 μg fentanyl, and one lozenge with an integrated applicator (200 μg fentanyl) were studied, and bioavailability was calculated. Blood samples were collected over 12 hours, and plasma concentrations of fentanyl were determined by HPLC with MS/MS detection. Results. 24 volunteers completed the study. The geometric mean of AUC0-tlast was the highest with oral transmucosal administration (1106 h  ∗  pg/ml, CV% = 32.86), followed by intravenous (672 h  ∗  pg/ml, CV% = 32.18) and intranasal administration (515 h  ∗  pg/ml, CV% = 30.10). Cmax was 886 pg/ml (CV% = 59.38) for intravenous, 338 pg/ml (CV% = 45.61) for intranasal, and 310 pg/ml (CV% = 29.58) for oral transmucosal administration. tmax was shortest for intravenous administration (0.06 h, SD = 0.056), followed by intranasal (0.21 h, SD = 0.078) and oral transmucosal administration (1.20 h, SD = 0.763). Dose-adjusted relative bioavailability was determined to be 74.70% for the intranasal formulation and 41.25% for the oral transmucosal product. In total, 38 adverse events (AEs) occurred. Fourteen AEs were potentially related to the investigational items. No serious AE occurred. Conclusion. Pharmacokinetic parameters and bioavailability of the investigated intranasal fentanyl indicated suitability for its intended use as an intranasal PCA option.

Thomas Duflot ◽  
Tony Pereira ◽  
Marie‐Pierre Tavolacci ◽  
Robinson Joannidès ◽  
Frédéric Aubrun ◽  

Hidetaka Hayashi ◽  
Seitaro Oda ◽  
Masafumi Kidoh ◽  
Takeshi Nakaura ◽  
Kosuke Morita ◽  

Abstract Purpose This study aimed to evaluate whether quantification of myocardial susceptibility by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) can be an imaging biomarker for cardiac amyloidosis (CA). Materials and methods Twenty-six patients with CA underwent CMR, including magnetic phase imaging with a 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging scanner. Myocardial susceptibility was quantified as a phase shift slope value by magnetic phase analysis. Those values from patients with CA were compared with corresponding values from 18 controls and 15 healthy volunteers. A univariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify significant parameters related to CA. Results The phase shift slope, a quantitative parameter of myocardial susceptibility, was significantly lower in the CA group compared with the control group and compared with healthy volunteers (p < 0.01). From a total of 17 tested variables, 6 were considered to be significant predictors of CA (p ≤ 0.05) during the univariate analysis. The phase shift slope yielded the best AUC of 0.89 (95% CI = 0.79–0.98) for the prediction of CA (p < 0.01). The phase shift slope was significantly correlated with the end-diastolic thickness of the interventricular septum (r =  − 0.39, p < 0.01) and posterior wall of the left ventricle (r =  − 0.35, p = 0.02). Conclusion Myocardial susceptibility analysis by CMR helps in the diagnosis of patients with CA and can be a new quantitative imaging biomarker for CA.

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