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2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 59-64
Author(s):  
Na Liao ◽  
◽  
Guang-Yun Mao ◽  
Fan-Jun Bao ◽  
Zhong Lin ◽  
...  

AIM: To investigate fluctuation of intraocular pressure (IOP) and seasonal variation of 24-hour IOP during one year in healthy participants METHODS: Totally 13 young healthy volunteers participated in this study. IOP was measured with Canon TX-20 at about 8:00-9:00 a.m. from Monday to Friday every week for a whole year. They also underwent 24-hour IOP examination every three months. Blood pressure, heart rate, temperature, humidity, atmosphere pressure, sunshine duration and other environment parameters were recorded. RESULTS: The yearly fluctuation curve showed IOP in the summer months were lower than other seasons. In the multivariable generalized estimating equation analysis, IOP had a negative correlation with both temperature and sunshine duration (P<0.05). There also was a seasonal effect on 24-hour IOP. However, all intraclass correlation coefficients values of minimum, maximum and average of the 24-hour IOP and each individual IOP were less than 0.30. CONCLUSION: IOP is trend to be higher in cold days than warm days. IOP have negative association with both environmental temperature and duration of sunshine. On a season-to-season basis, 24-hour IOP is not highly reproducible in healthy volunteers.


2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Author(s):  
Fatma Savran Oguz ◽  
Suleyman Rustu Oguz ◽  
Yeliz Ogret ◽  
Tanju Sedat Karadeniz ◽  
Hayriye Senturk Ciftci ◽  
...  

Abstract Objectives The antibodies interact with the “Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) antigens” at specific epitopes. “Epitopes” are present on a single HLA or shared by multiple antigens. In this study, we aim to determine the frequency of prevalent epitopes common in the Turkish population. Methods Non-related 644 healthy volunteers were recruited, and The “HLA-A, -B, -C, -DR -DQ’s” were typed using the “Next Generation Sequencing”. The provisional and confirmed epitopes were identified using the “HLA Epitope Registry databases, HLA Epitopia Maps and Immucor Epitope databases” dated 07.02.2018. Epitope frequencies were calculated by counting the shared epitopes in the total number of shared HLA Class epitopes in our sample database. Results Class I HLA’s had 298 epitopes that repeated a total of 158,117 times with frequencies ranging between 0.0006 and 2.03%, and the most frequent epitope was 170RY found on 119 different alleles. Class II HLA’s had 193 epitopes that repeated a total of 93,082 times with frequencies ranging between 0.002 and 1.36%, and the most frequent epitope was 108P found on 42 different alleles. Conclusions Our findings summarize both the provisional, and confirmed epitope frequencies in the Turkish population and may help clinicians and immunogeneticists develop a better understanding of HLA epitope mismatches.


Author(s):  
Inês Carreira Figueiredo ◽  
Faith Borgan ◽  
Ofer Pasternak ◽  
Federico E. Turkheimer ◽  
Oliver D. Howes

AbstractWhite-matter abnormalities, including increases in extracellular free-water, are implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Recent advances in diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enable free-water levels to be indexed. However, the brain levels in patients with schizophrenia have not yet been systematically investigated. We aimed to meta-analyse white-matter free-water levels in patients with schizophrenia compared to healthy volunteers. We performed a literature search in EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO databases. Diffusion MRI studies reporting free-water in patients with schizophrenia compared to healthy controls were included. We investigated the effect of demographic variables, illness duration, chlorpromazine equivalents of antipsychotic medication, type of scanner, and clinical symptoms severity on free-water measures. Ten studies, including five of first episode of psychosis have investigated free-water levels in schizophrenia, with significantly higher levels reported in whole-brain and specific brain regions (including corona radiata, internal capsule, superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculus, cingulum bundle, and corpus callosum). Six studies, including a total of 614 participants met the inclusion criteria for quantitative analysis. Whole-brain free-water levels were significantly higher in patients relative to healthy volunteers (Hedge’s g = 0.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.07–0.69, p = 0.02). Sex moderated this effect, such that smaller effects were seen in samples with more females (z = −2.54, p < 0.05), but antipsychotic dose, illness duration and symptom severity did not. Patients with schizophrenia have increased free-water compared to healthy volunteers. Future studies are necessary to determine the pathological sources of increased free-water, and its relationship with illness duration and severity.


Author(s):  
Tim Nutbeam ◽  
Rob Fenwick ◽  
Barbara May ◽  
Willem Stassen ◽  
Jason E. Smith ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Motor vehicle collisions are a common cause of death and serious injury. Many casualties will remain in their vehicle following a collision. Trapped patients have more injuries and are more likely to die than their untrapped counterparts. Current extrication methods are time consuming and have a focus on movement minimisation and mitigation. The optimal extrication strategy and the effect this extrication method has on spinal movement is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the movement at the cervical and lumbar spine for four commonly utilised extrication techniques. Methods Biomechanical data was collected using inertial Measurement Units on 6 healthy volunteers. The extrication types examined were: roof removal, b-post rip, rapid removal and self-extrication. Measurements were recorded at the cervical and lumbar spine, and in the anteroposterior (AP) and lateral (LAT) planes. Total movement (travel), maximal movement, mean, standard deviation and confidence intervals are reported for each extrication type. Results Data from a total of 230 extrications were collected for analysis. The smallest maximal and total movement (travel) were seen when the volunteer self-extricated (AP max = 2.6 mm, travel 4.9 mm). The largest maximal movement and travel were seen in rapid extrication extricated (AP max = 6.21 mm, travel 20.51 mm). The differences between self-extrication and all other methods were significant (p < 0.001), small non-significant differences existed between roof removal, b-post rip and rapid removal. Self-extrication was significantly quicker than the other extrication methods (mean 6.4 s). Conclusions In healthy volunteers, self-extrication is associated with the smallest spinal movement and the fastest time to complete extrication. Rapid, B-post rip and roof off extrication types are all associated with similar movements and time to extrication in prepared vehicles.


Author(s):  
Tim Nutbeam ◽  
Rob Fenwick ◽  
Barbara May ◽  
Willem Stassen ◽  
Jason Smith ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Motor vehicle collisions remain a common cause of spinal cord injury. Biomechanical studies of spinal movement often lack “real world” context and applicability. Additional data may enhance our understanding of the potential for secondary spinal cord injury. We propose the metric ‘travel’ (total movement) and suggest that our understanding of movement related risk of injury could be improved if travel was routinely reported. We report maximal movement and travel for collar application in vehicle and subsequent self-extrication. Methods Biomechanical data on application of cervical collar with the volunteer sat in a vehicle were collected using Inertial Measurement Units on 6 healthy volunteers. Maximal movement and travel are reported. These data and a re-analysis of previously published work is used to demonstrate the utility of travel and maximal movement in the context of self-extrication. Results Data from a total of 60 in-vehicle collar applications across three female and three male volunteers was successfully collected for analysis. The mean age across participants was 50.3 years (range 28–68) and the BMI was 27.7 (range 21.5–34.6). The mean maximal anterior–posterior movement associated with collar application was 2.3 mm with a total AP travel of 4.9 mm. Travel (total movement) for in-car application of collar and self-extrication was 9.5 mm compared to 9.4 mm travel for self-extrication without a collar. Conclusion We have demonstrated the application of ‘travel’ in the context of self-extrication. Total travel is similar across self-extricating healthy volunteers with and without a collar. We suggest that where possible ‘travel’ is collected and reported in future biomechanical studies in this and related areas of research. It remains appropriate to apply a cervical collar to self-extricating casualties when the clinical target is that of movement minimisation.


2022 ◽  
Vol 13 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ning Cao ◽  
Shuping Li ◽  
Aimin Xu ◽  
Manlin Li ◽  
Xiaoguang Zou ◽  
...  

ObjectiveSeveral β-carboline alkaloids (βCBs), such as harmine, harmaline, harmane, and nor-harmane, are effective for Alzheimer’s disease mouse models. They can be found in some plants, common foodstuffs, and blank plasma of various mammals. However, whether these compounds in mammals are exogenous or endogenous remain unclear.MethodsThe exposure levels of βCBs and of neurotransmitters in plasma and tissues of pup rats, aging rats, mice of different physiological states, and healthy volunteers were detected by using UPLC-MS/MS. Plasma and tissue samples from 110 newborn rats up to 29 days old at 11 sampling points were collected and were analyzed to determine the concentration variation of βCBs in the developmental phase of newborn rats. The plasma of rats aged 2 to 18 months was used to detect the variation trend of βCBs and with some neurotransmitters. The plasma samples of normal C57BL/6 mice, APP/PS1 double transgenic mice, and scopolamine-induced memory impairment mice were collected and were analyzed to compare the difference of βCBs in different physiological states. The exposure levels of βCBs such as harmine, harmaline, and harmane in plasma of 550 healthy volunteers were also detected and analyzed on the basis of gender, race, and age.ResultsResults showed that harmine was the main compound found in rats, mice, and human, which can be detected in a newborn rat plasma (0.16 ± 0.03 ng/ml) and brain (0.33 ± 0.14 ng/g) without any exogenous consumption. The concentration of harmine in rat plasma showed a decreasing trend similar to the exposure levels of neurotransmitters such as 5-hydroxytryptamine, acetylcholine chloride, glutamic acid, tyrosine, and phenylalanine during the growth period of 18 months. The harmine exposure in rats and human indicates high dependence on the physiological and pathological status such as aging, gender, and race.ConclusionThe dynamic changes of harmine exposure in different animals and human, in vivo, at developmental and physiological states indicate that harmine is a naturally and widely distributed endogenous substance in different mammals and human. In addition to exogenous ingestion, spontaneous synthesis might be another important source of harmine in mammals, which should be verified by further experiment.


Diagnostics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 202
Author(s):  
Anne-Françoise Rousseau ◽  
Isabelle Kellens ◽  
Pierre Delanaye ◽  
Olivier Bruyère ◽  
Benoit Misset ◽  
...  

(1) Background: The supine testing position is suitable for early quadriceps strength (QS) assessment in intensive care unit, while a seated position is more appropriate for survivors who have regained mobility. Acquiring consistent measurements is essential for longitudinal follow-up. We compared the QS generated in different settings in healthy volunteers. (2) Methods: Isometric QS was assessed using a MicroFet2 and standardised protocols comparing different modalities. Hip and knee flexion angles were, respectively, 45° and 40° (H45-K40) in the supine position, and both at 90° (H90-K90) in the seated position. Dynamometer was either handheld (non-fixed configuration, NFC), or fixed (FC) in a cubicle. (3) Results: QS in H90–K90 and H45-K40 positions were strongly correlated, but QS was higher in the later position regardless of the configuration. Compared to H45-K40, biases of 108.2N (or 28.05%) and 110.3N (27.13%) were observed in H90-K90 position, respectively, in the NFC and FC. These biases were independently and positively associated with QS (p < 0.001). For both position, there were no significant differences between QS measured in NFC or FC. (4) Conclusions: The quadriceps was less efficient in the seated position, compared to the supine position, in healthy volunteers. These findings have practical implications for further assessments and research in critically ill patients.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
David Martín-Caro Álvarez ◽  
Diego Serrano-Muñoz ◽  
Juan José Fernández-Pérez ◽  
Julio Gómez-Soriano ◽  
Juan Avendaño-Coy

Abstract BackgroundFormer studies investigated the application, both transcutaneous and with implanted electrodes, of high frequency alternating currents (HFAC) in humans for blocking the peripheral nervous system. The present trial aimed to assess the effect of HFAC on motor response, somatosensory thresholds, and peripheral nerve conduction, when applied percutaneously with ultrasound-guided needles at frequencies of 10 kHz and 20 kHz in healthy volunteers. MethodsA parallel, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted. Ultrasound-guided HFAC at 10 kHz and 20 kHz and sham stimulation were delivered to the median nerve of 60 healthy volunteers (n=20 per group) for 20 minutes. The main assessed variables were maximum isometric flexion strength (MFFS) of the index finger, myotonometry, pressure pain threshold (PPT), mechanical detection threshold (MDT), and antidromic sensory nerve action potential (SNAP). Measurements were recorded pre-intervention, during the intervention 15 minutes after its commencement, immediately post-intervention, and at 15 minutes post-intervention.ResultsA decrease in the MFFS was observed immediately post-intervention compared to baseline, both in the 10 kHz group [-8.5 %; 95% confidence interval (CI) -14.9 to -2.1] and the 20 kHz group (-12.0%; 95%CI -18.3 to -5.6). At 15 minutes post-intervention, the decrease in the MFFS was -9.5% (95%CI -17.3 to -1.8) and -11.5% (95%CI -9.3 to -3.8) in the 10 kHz and 20 kHz groups, respectively. No changes over time were found in the sham group. The between-group comparison of changes in MFFS showed a greater reduction of -10.8% (95%CI -19.8 to -1.8) immediately post-intervention in the 20 kHz compared to the sham stimulation group. Muscle tone increased over time in both the 10 kHz and 20 kHz groups, but not in the sham group. The intergroup comparison of myotonometry showed a superior effect in the 20 kHz (6.7%, 95%CI 0.5 to 12.9) versus the sham group. No significant changes were observed in the rest of the assessed variables. ConclusionsThe ultrasound-guided percutaneous stimulation applying 10 kHz and 20 kHz HFAC to the median nerve produced reversible reductions in strength and increases in muscle tone with no adverse effects.


Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 310
Author(s):  
Kevin J. Scully ◽  
Laura T. Jay ◽  
Steven Freedman ◽  
Gregory S. Sawicki ◽  
Ahmet Uluer ◽  
...  

Measures of body fat and lean mass may better predict important clinical outcomes in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) than body mass index (BMI). Little is known about how diet quality and exercise may impact body composition in these patients. Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) body composition, 24-h dietary recall, and physical activity were assessed in a cross-sectional analysis of 38 adolescents and adults with CF and 19 age-, race-, and gender-matched healthy volunteers. Compared with the healthy volunteers, participants with CF had a lower appendicular lean mass index (ALMI), despite no observed difference in BMI, and their diets consisted of higher glycemic index foods with a greater proportion of calories from fat and a lower proportion of calories from protein. In participants with CF, pulmonary function positively correlated with measures of lean mass, particularly ALMI, and negatively correlated with multiple measures of body fat after controlling for age, gender, and BMI. Higher physical activity levels were associated with greater ALMI and lower body fat. In conclusion, body composition measures, particularly ALMI, may better predict key clinical outcomes in individuals with CF than BMI. Future longitudinal studies analyzing the effect of dietary intake and exercise on body composition and CF-specific clinical outcomes are needed.


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