policy reforms
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2022 ◽  
pp. 097226292110662
Isha Jaswal ◽  
Badri Narayanan G ◽  
Shanu Jain

Ever since the liberation of trade policies in India, Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) has been crucial in the growth of the economy, both at the macro as well as sector level. The association between FDI and economic growth is an area of interest globally. The investment decisions are affected by several national and international events that add to the volatility of the number of inflows. COVID-19 pandemic severely impacted the intensity of FDI inflows. But the strong resilience by our government manifested in crucial policy reforms and proactive decision-making minimized the impact. This article examines the potential impact of FDI on crucial macroeconomic variables using the Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) Model. Introducing the policy shock of $90 billion into the model, an increase of 5.68% per annum in GDP is estimated. Findings indicate that the impact of FDI shall be favourable to a large number of sectors mainly metals, construction, motor vehicle, computers, and electronics in terms of increased output, exports, and employment opportunities. The study offers logical implications for the policymakers to continue strengthening their moves to attract FDI.

2022 ◽  
P. Campoy-Muñoz ◽  
M. A. Cardenete ◽  
F. J. De Miguel-Vélez ◽  
J. Pérez-Mayo

AbstractThe aim of this paper is contributing to fill the gap between the macroeconomic effects of policy reforms and the microeconomic and social ones, considering simultaneously both kind of impacts. Regarding fiscal adjustments, concern about the sustainability of public deficit and debt resulting from the Great Recession led governments to adopt austerity measures in most European countries. Our analysis considers the redistributive effects of such adjustments for the Spanish economy by simulating a hypothetical reduction of public deficit and distinguishing between spending cuts and tax hikes. In terms of analytical approach, a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model and a microsimulation model are integrated to include the general equilibrium effects of these measures as well as the effects on income distribution. The results contribute to the growing but limited literature on the distributional effects of fiscal consolidations by showing that policymakers have to choose between more inequality or more poverty.

Inamara Santos Melo ◽  
Renata Maria Caminha M. O. de Carvalho ◽  
Maria do Carmo Martins Sobral ◽  
Marília Regina Costa Castro Lyra ◽  
Hernande Pereira da Silva

Defining measures for climate change adaptation is a complex task given the existence of social, environmental, and economic demands, particularly in cities with poor urban infrastructure. As a result of analyzing the revision process of the Recife Master Plan, it is possible to observe that a reduction in the social and environmental vulnerabilities has implied carrying out more consistent studies, which may entail the implementation of structuring measures, and that environmental sustainability requires multilevel governance, with policy reforms on a global, regional and local scale, difficult to implement in the short term, although necessary for refocusing climate policies and for overcoming the inability to provide resources for a tailored adaptation infrastructure. The path to building a resilient city that provides a safer environment for the future depends on an inclusive development model, which enables the population to improve urban conditions and minimize the impacts brought about by extreme weather events.

2022 ◽  
pp. 588-608
Emily Ng'eno ◽  
Victor Odhiambo Shikuku

This chapter discusses water pollution control and abatement strategies in relation to emerging contaminants. The pollution prevention measures described in the chapter can broadly be categorized into four main areas that are highly interdependent: behavioral changes, new technical solutions to aid remediation of the environment, further research and data availability, and legislation or policy reforms. These main areas have been expanded in detail under 13 subtitles that are not only interdependent but also practical and achievable. The chapter demonstrates that if the proposed measures are collectively taken into consideration, then most of the United Nations Sustainable Development goals, especially the goals relating to water quality, would become a reality. The benefits of pollution control and abatement are widespread and far-reaching and can better the quality of life on the planet.

Religions ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 42
Khalid Arar ◽  
Rania Sawalhi ◽  
Munube Yilmaz

The aim of the present article was to systematically review international evidence about Islamic-based (a new term we suggest) educational leadership models published in peer-reviewed journals between 1990 and 2021. We conducted a systematic review of the literature by following the steps identified by Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). These steps were data source identification, search, data collection, eligibility criteria selection, data selection, and data analysis. They were aimed at enabling us to answer the following research inquiries: (1) What are the existing developments in research on Islamic-based educational leadership and policy? and (2) What are the main themes presented in these studies? Here, the results are presented first in a macro-outlook elucidating the main trends of this research (topical areas, geographical areas, approaches, and methods). The main themes that emerge from the analysis are: (a) policy, reforms, and stakeholders; second, educational leadership models and styles; and third, gender, feminism, and social justice. We share theoretical and methodological conclusions and outlines of some possible future research directions to contribute to inter-faith, equity, and diversity.

2022 ◽  
pp. 171-179
Amaan Ullah ◽  
Abukasim Idrisi ◽  
Mohd Mohsin Khan ◽  
K. M. Bahrul Islam

India has been an agrarian economy since ancient times; despite the diminishing value added of agricultural activities to total domestic production or GDP, the agriculture sector has remained the largest employer and thus proved to be the driver of growth and poverty reduction. Moreover, in the recent period of a pandemic where every economic activity came to a halt and showed a negative growth rate, agricultural activities, on the other hand, grew positively, employing job losers in these challenging times. However, agriculture in India faces lots of obstacles due to its limitations in policy formulation and implementation. Therefore, this chapter aims to provide an outline of Indian agriculture growth – reviewing its agricultural policy reforms and observing the fundamental concerns that have shaped the expansion of the agriculture sector.

Ashok Gulati ◽  
Pravesh Sharma ◽  
Kavery Ganguly

AbstractThe value chain analysis undertaken in this study reveals their varying performance against the conceptual framework of CISS-F. This research has helped understand the functioning of the value chains and implications of key policy reforms on the ground. There are examples of successful agricultural value chains, which clearly indicate how policies have worked in the interests of the farmers and contributed towards making the chain more efficient. However, there are several challenges confronting these value chains that need serious policy attention. Each value chain study concludes with a proposed list of desirable interventions, and way forward, very specific to the commodity. These proposed interventions are by no means exhaustive. Rather, they represent a set of critical and urgent actions which are necessary for the growth and development of that particular value chain.

Namita Agrawal

Abstract: India has applied for GST for their taxation system which has already been applied by more than 160 Nations worldwide. GST has changed India’s perception in front of policy makers of other countries, global investors including big automobile companies. The growth of automobile sector has clear correlation with the policy reforms as it affects domestic demand pattern as well as trade balance. The automobile industry in India is the most booming industry from last many years. India has become the fourth substantial automobile market in 2019 with increasing sales by 8.3% to 3.99 million units. It was the seventh substantial automobile manufacturer in 2018. The government of India has also known the importance of automobile industry. India has imposed a flare of hope by determined growth targets, supported by many of vital undertaking such as Digital India and the make in India campaigns. There are many changes made ensuring simplicity in the GST tax system. The purpose of the study is to understand the impact of these changes by Automobile Manufacturers (OEMs). Keywords: GST, Taxation, Commercial vehicle, automobile manufacturer.

Jimmy Francis Obonyo ◽  
William Muhumuza

In the 1990s several countries in Africa adopted decentralisation policy reforms that coincided with a renewed interest in traditional institutions. This development has since sparked an intense debate on the compatibility of traditional systems of governance with decentralisation. The present article documents a case study conducted in Uganda’s Karamoja sub-region, a stronghold of traditionalism despite local government reforms. It concludes that although the traditional system of governance could help to link local communities with the modern local government system, the two structures have not been harmonised. Instead, they run on parallel and contradictory paths, which has had negative consequences for local governance and service delivery. The paper advocates blending the two to form a hybrid system in which they complement each other rather than being a source of conflict.

2021 ◽  
Sean W. Fleming ◽  
James R. Watson ◽  
Ashley Ellenson ◽  
Alex J. Cannon ◽  
Velimir C. Vesselinov

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