Scandinavian Journal of Trauma Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
Latest Publications





Published By Springer (Biomed Central Ltd.)

1757-7241, 1757-7241

SungJoon Park ◽  
Sung Woo Lee ◽  
Kap Su Han ◽  
Eui Jung Lee ◽  
Dong-Hyun Jang ◽  

Abstract Background A favorable neurological outcome is closely related to patient characteristics and total cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) duration. The total CPR duration consists of pre-hospital and in-hospital durations. To date, consensus is lacking on the optimal total CPR duration. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the upper limit of total CPR duration, the optimal cut-off time at the pre-hospital level, and the time to switch from conventional CPR to alternative CPR such as extracorporeal CPR. Methods We conducted a retrospective observational study using prospective, multi-center registry of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients between October 2015 and June 2019. Emergency medical service–assessed adult patients (aged ≥ 18 years) with non-traumatic OHCA were included. The primary endpoint was a favorable neurological outcome at hospital discharge. Results Among 7914 patients with OHCA, 577 had favorable neurological outcomes. The optimal cut-off for pre-hospital CPR duration in patients with OHCA was 12 min regardless of the initial rhythm. The optimal cut-offs for total CPR duration that transitioned from conventional CPR to an alternative CPR method were 25 and 21 min in patients with initial shockable and non-shockable rhythms, respectively. In the two groups, the upper limits of total CPR duration for achieving a probability of favorable neurological outcomes < 1% were 55–62 and 24–34 min, respectively, while those for a cumulative proportion of favorable neurological outcome > 99% were 43–53 and 45–71 min, respectively. Conclusions Herein, we identified the optimal cut-off time for transitioning from pre-hospital to in-hospital settings and from conventional CPR to alternative resuscitation. Although there is an upper limit of CPR duration, favorable neurological outcomes can be expected according to each patient’s resuscitation-related factors, despite prolonged CPR duration.

Tim Nutbeam ◽  
Rob Fenwick ◽  
Barbara May ◽  
Willem Stassen ◽  
Jason E. Smith ◽  

Abstract Background Motor vehicle collisions are a common cause of death and serious injury. Many casualties will remain in their vehicle following a collision. Trapped patients have more injuries and are more likely to die than their untrapped counterparts. Current extrication methods are time consuming and have a focus on movement minimisation and mitigation. The optimal extrication strategy and the effect this extrication method has on spinal movement is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the movement at the cervical and lumbar spine for four commonly utilised extrication techniques. Methods Biomechanical data was collected using inertial Measurement Units on 6 healthy volunteers. The extrication types examined were: roof removal, b-post rip, rapid removal and self-extrication. Measurements were recorded at the cervical and lumbar spine, and in the anteroposterior (AP) and lateral (LAT) planes. Total movement (travel), maximal movement, mean, standard deviation and confidence intervals are reported for each extrication type. Results Data from a total of 230 extrications were collected for analysis. The smallest maximal and total movement (travel) were seen when the volunteer self-extricated (AP max = 2.6 mm, travel 4.9 mm). The largest maximal movement and travel were seen in rapid extrication extricated (AP max = 6.21 mm, travel 20.51 mm). The differences between self-extrication and all other methods were significant (p < 0.001), small non-significant differences existed between roof removal, b-post rip and rapid removal. Self-extrication was significantly quicker than the other extrication methods (mean 6.4 s). Conclusions In healthy volunteers, self-extrication is associated with the smallest spinal movement and the fastest time to complete extrication. Rapid, B-post rip and roof off extrication types are all associated with similar movements and time to extrication in prepared vehicles.

Tim Nutbeam ◽  
Rob Fenwick ◽  
Barbara May ◽  
Willem Stassen ◽  
Jason Smith ◽  

Abstract Background Motor vehicle collisions remain a common cause of spinal cord injury. Biomechanical studies of spinal movement often lack “real world” context and applicability. Additional data may enhance our understanding of the potential for secondary spinal cord injury. We propose the metric ‘travel’ (total movement) and suggest that our understanding of movement related risk of injury could be improved if travel was routinely reported. We report maximal movement and travel for collar application in vehicle and subsequent self-extrication. Methods Biomechanical data on application of cervical collar with the volunteer sat in a vehicle were collected using Inertial Measurement Units on 6 healthy volunteers. Maximal movement and travel are reported. These data and a re-analysis of previously published work is used to demonstrate the utility of travel and maximal movement in the context of self-extrication. Results Data from a total of 60 in-vehicle collar applications across three female and three male volunteers was successfully collected for analysis. The mean age across participants was 50.3 years (range 28–68) and the BMI was 27.7 (range 21.5–34.6). The mean maximal anterior–posterior movement associated with collar application was 2.3 mm with a total AP travel of 4.9 mm. Travel (total movement) for in-car application of collar and self-extrication was 9.5 mm compared to 9.4 mm travel for self-extrication without a collar. Conclusion We have demonstrated the application of ‘travel’ in the context of self-extrication. Total travel is similar across self-extricating healthy volunteers with and without a collar. We suggest that where possible ‘travel’ is collected and reported in future biomechanical studies in this and related areas of research. It remains appropriate to apply a cervical collar to self-extricating casualties when the clinical target is that of movement minimisation.

J. Jeyanathan ◽  
D. Bootland ◽  
A. Al-Rais ◽  
J. Leung ◽  
J. Wijesuriya ◽  

Abstract Background The COVID-19 pandemic has placed exceptional demand on Intensive Care Units, necessitating the critical care transfer of patients on a regional and national scale. Performing these transfers required specialist expertise and involved moving patients over significant distances. Air Ambulance Kent Surrey Sussex created a designated critical care transfer team and was one of the first civilian air ambulances in the United Kingdom to move ventilated COVID-19 patients by air. We describe the practical set up of such a service and the key lessons learned from the first 50 transfers. Methods Retrospective review of air critical care transfer service set up and case review of first 50 transfers. Results We describe key elements of the critical care transfer service, including coordination and activation; case interrogation; workforce; training; equipment; aircraft modifications; human factors and clinical governance. A total of 50 missions are described between 18 December 2020 and 1 February 2021. 94% of the transfer missions were conducted by road. The mean age of these patients was 58 years (29–83). 30 (60%) were male and 20 (40%) were female. The mean total mission cycle (time of referral until the time team declared free at receiving hospital) was 264 min (range 149–440 min). The mean time spent at the referring hospital prior to leaving for the receiving unit was 72 min (31–158). The mean transfer transit time between referring and receiving units was 72 min (9–182). Conclusion Critically ill COVID-19 patients have highly complex medical needs during transport. Critical care transfer of COVID-19-positive patients by civilian HEMS services, including air transfer, can be achieved safely with specific planning, protocols and precautions. Regional planning of COVID-19 critical care transfers is required to optimise the time available of critical care transfer teams.

Bjørn Ole Reid ◽  
Lars Eide Næss-Pleym ◽  
Karin Elvenes Bakkelund ◽  
Jostein Dale ◽  
Oddvar Uleberg ◽  

Abstract Background Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been shown to be elevated among first responders (Emergency Medical Services, fire service, police force) compared to the general population. Examining the prevalence of mental health issues in a work force with an elevated occupational risk is fundamental towards ensuring their wellbeing and implementing safeguard measures. The goal of this study is therefore to report the prevalence of depression, anxiety, posttraumatic development, and PTSD in Norwegian ambulance personnel. Methods This study is a cross-sectional, anonymous, web-based survey (Questback®), performed among operative personnel employed in the Emergency Medical Services in the Regional Health Trust of Central Norway between 18. February and 9. April 2021. The study was sent to 1052 eligible participants. Questions reported demographic data, a traumatic events exposure index, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (Depression), Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 scale, Posttraumatic symptom scale (PTSD) and Posttraumatic change scale. Results The response rate in this study was 45.5% (n = 479/1052). The mean age of respondents was 37.1 years (std. 11.1) and 52.8% (n = 253) were male. Of the respondents, 80.6% (n = 386) were married or had a partner, and 91.6% (n = 439) reported having access to a peer support programme, with 34.9% (n = 167) reporting that they had utilized peer support. In this study, 5% (n = 24) showed a prevalence of manifest posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, while 8.6% (n = 41) reported moderate to severe depression and 2.9% (n = 14) presented moderate to severe symptoms of general anxiety. Of the respondents, 77.2% (n = 370) reported personal growth because of their work experiences. Conclusions This study indicates that Norwegian ambulance personnel report a prevalence of posttraumatic stress symptoms and depression, which is slightly higher for men, and lower for the female proportion in this study, when compared to an adult Norwegian population. The vast majority of respondents reported personal growth because of their work experience, and both the degree of peer support and having a partner seem to influence levels of posttraumatic stress and -development.

Klara Torlén Wennlund ◽  
Lisa Kurland ◽  
Knut Olanders ◽  
Maaret Castrén ◽  
Katarina Bohm

Abstract Background The requirement concerning formal education for emergency medical dispatcher (EMD) is debated and varies, both nationally and internationally. There are few studies on the outcomes of emergency medical dispatching in relation to professional background. This study aimed to compare calls handled by an EMD with and without support by a registered nurse (RN), with respect to priority level, accuracy, and medical condition. Methods A retrospective observational study, performed on registry data from specific regions during 2015. The ambulance personnel’s first assessment of the priority level and medical condition was used as the reference standard. Outcomes were: the proportion of calls dispatched with a priority in concordance with the ambulance personnel’s assessment; over- and undertriage; the proportion of most adverse over- and undertriage; sensitivity, specificity and predictive values for each of the ambulance priorities; proportion of calls dispatched with a medical condition in concordance with the ambulance personnel’s assessment. Proportions were reported with 95% confidence intervals. χ2-test was used for comparisons. P-levels < 0.05 were regarded as significant. Results A total of 25,025 calls were included (EMD n = 23,723, EMD + RN n = 1302). Analyses relating to priority and medical condition were performed on 23,503 and 21,881 calls, respectively. A dispatched priority in concordance with the ambulance personnel’s assessment were: EMD n = 11,319 (50.7%) and EMD + RN n = 481 (41.5%) (p < 0.01). The proportion of overtriage was equal for both groups: EMD n = 5904, EMD + RN n = 306, (26.4%) p = 0.25). The proportion of undertriage for each group was: EMD n = 5122 (22.9%) and EMD + RN n = 371 (32.0%) (p < 0.01). Sensitivity for the most urgent priority was 54.6% for EMD, compared to 29.6% for EMD + RN (p < 0.01), and specificity was 67.3% and 84.8% (p < 0.01) respectively. A dispatched medical condition in concordance with the ambulance personnel’s assessment were: EMD n = 13,785 (66.4%) and EMD + RN n = 697 (62.2%) (p = 0.01). Conclusions A higher precision of emergency medical dispatching was not observed when the EMD was supported by an RN. How patient safety is affected by the observed divergence in dispatched priorities is an area for future research.

Calvin Lukas Kienbacher ◽  
Jürgen Grafeneder ◽  
Katharina Tscherny ◽  
Mario Krammel ◽  
Verena Fuhrmann ◽  

Abstract Background The COVID-19 pandemic led to widespread use of personal protection equipment (PPE), including filtering face piece (FFP) masks, throughout the world. PPE. Previous studies indicate that PPE impairs neurocognitive performance in healthcare workers. Concerns for personnel safety have led to special recommendations regarding basic life support (BLS) in patients with a potential SARS-CoV-2 infection, including the use of PPE. Established instruments are available to assess attention and dexterity in BLS settings, respectively. We aimed to evaluate the influence of PPE with different types of FFP masks on these two neuropsychological components of EMS personnel during BLS. Methods This was a randomized controlled non-inferiority triple-crossover study. Teams of paramedics completed three 12-min long BLS scenarios on a manikin after having climbed three flights of stairs with equipment, each in three experimental conditions: (a) without pandemic PPE, (b) with PPE including a FFP2 mask with an expiration valve and (c) with PPE including an FFP2 mask without an expiration valve. The teams and intervention sequences were randomized. We measured the shift in concentration performance using the d2 test and dexterity using the nine-hole peg test (NHPT). We compared results between the three conditions. For the primary outcome, the non-inferiority margin was set at 20 points. Results Forty-eight paramedics participated. Concentration performance was significantly better after each scenario, with no differences noted between groups: d2 shift control versus with valve − 8.3 (95% CI − 19.4 to 2.7) points; control versus without valve − 8.5 (− 19.7 to 2.7) points; with valve versus without valve 0.1 (− 11.1 to 11.3) points. Similar results were found for the NHPT: + 0.3 (− 0.7 to 1.4), − 0.4 (− 1.4 to 0.7), 0.7 (− 0.4 to 1.8) s respectively. Conclusion Attention increases when performing BLS. Attention and dexterity are not inferior when wearing PPE, including FFP2 masks. PPE should be used on a low-threshold basis.

Martin Samdal ◽  
Kjetil Thorsen ◽  
Ola Græsli ◽  
Mårten Sandberg ◽  
Marius Rehn

Abstract Background Selection of incidents and accurate identification of patients that require assistance from physician-staffed emergency medical services (P-EMS) remain essential. We aimed to evaluate P-EMS availability, the underlying criteria for dispatch, and the corresponding dispatch accuracy of trauma care in south-east Norway in 2015, to identify areas for improvement. Methods Pre-hospital data from emergency medical coordination centres and P-EMS medical databases were linked with data from the Norwegian Trauma Registry (NTR). Based on a set of conditions (injury severity, interventions performed, level of consciousness, incident category), trauma incidents were defined as complex, warranting P-EMS assistance, or non-complex. Incident complexity and P-EMS involvement were the main determinants when assessing the triage accuracy. Undertriage was adjusted for P-EMS availability and response and transport times. Results Among 19,028 trauma incidents, P-EMS were involved in 2506 (13.2%). The range of overtriage was 74–80% and the range of undertriage was 20–32%. P-EMS readiness in the event of complex incidents ranged from 58 to 70%. The most frequent dispatch criterion was “Police/fire brigade request immediate response” recorded in 4321 (22.7%) of the incidents. Criteria from the groups “Accidents” and “Road traffic accidents” were recorded in 10,875 (57.2%) incidents, and criteria from the groups “Transport reservations” and “Unidentified problem” in 6025 (31,7%) incidents. Among 4916 patient pathways in the NTR, 681 (13.9%) could not be matched with pre-hospital data records. Conclusions Both P-EMS availability and dispatch accuracy remain suboptimal in trauma care in south-east Norway. Dispatch criteria are too vague to facilitate accurate P-EMS dispatch, and pre-hospital data is inconsistent and insufficient to provide basic data for scientific research. Future dispatch criteria should focus on the care aspect of P-EMS. Better tools for both dispatch and incident handling for the emergency medical coordination centres are essential. In general, coordination, standardisation, and integration of existing data systems should enhance the quality of trauma care and increase patient safety.

Hanne Irene Jensen ◽  
Sevim Ozden ◽  
Gitte Schultz Kristensen ◽  
Mihnaz Azizi ◽  
Siri Aas Smedemark ◽  

Abstract Background The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and the risk of an extensive overload of the healthcare systems have elucidated the need to make decisions on the level of life-sustaining treatment for patients requiring hospitalisation. The purpose of the study was to investigate the proportion and characteristics of COVID-19 patients with limitation of life-sustaining treatment decisions and the degree of patient involvement in the decisions. Methods A retrospective observational descriptive study was conducted in three Danish regional hospitals, looking at all patients ≥ 18 years of age admitted in 2020 with COVID-19 as the primary diagnosis. Lists of hospitalised patients admitted due to COVID-19 were extracted. The data registration included age, gender, comorbidities, including mental state, body mass index, frailty, recent hospital admissions, COVID-19 life-sustaining treatment, ICU admission, decisions on limitations of life-sustaining treatment before and during current hospitalisation, hospital length of stay, and hospital mortality. Results A total of 476 patients were included. For 7% (33/476), a decision about limitation of life-sustaining treatment had been made prior to hospital admission. At the time of admission, one or more limitations of life-sustaining treatment were registered for 16% (75/476) of patients. During the admission, limitation decisions were made for an additional 11 patients, totaling 18% (86/476). For 40% (34/86), the decisions were either made by or discussed with the patient. The decisions not made by patients were made by physicians. For 36% (31/86), no information was disclosed about patient involvement. Conclusions Life-sustaining treatment limitation decisions were made for 18% of a COVID-19 patient cohort. Hereof, more than a third of the decisions had been made before hospital admission. Many records lacked information on patient involvement in the decisions.

Jean-Stephane David ◽  
Aline Lambert ◽  
Xavier-Jean Taverna ◽  
Pascal Incagnoli ◽  
Marie-Odile Geay-Baillat ◽  

Abstract Background In severely injured patients, fibrinogen supplementation is recommended when fibrinogenemia is < 1.5 g L−1, but some teams have suggested to use higher thresholds (fibrinogenemia < 2.0 g L−1 or FIBTEM clot amplitude at 5 min (A5) values < 11 mm). The goal of this study was to specify in patients with a moderate fibrinogen deficit (MFD) whether some admission characteristics would be associated with fibrinogen administration at 24 h. Methods Prospective analysis of retrospectively collected data from a trauma registry (01/2011–12/2019). MFD-C was defined by a fibrinogenemia 1.51–1.99 g L−1 or the corresponding FIBTEM-A5 values (MFD-A5) that were determined from linear regression and ROC curve analysis. Administration of fibrinogen were described according to the following admission parameters: shock index (SI) > 1, hemoglobin level < 110 g L−1 (HemoCue®), and base deficit > 5 mEq L−1. Data are expressed as count (%), median [IQR]. Results 1076 patients were included in the study and 266 (27%) had MFD-C, among them, 122/266 (46%) received fibrinogen. Patients with MFD-C who received fibrinogen were more severely injured (ISS: 27 [19–36] vs. 24 [17–29]) and had more impaired vital signs (base deficit: 5.4 [3.6–7.8] vs. 3.8 [2.0–6.0]). Linear regression analysis found a positive correlation between fibrinogen level and FIBTEM-A5 (r: 0.805). For a fibrinogen level < 1.5 g L−1 and < 2.0 g L−1, FIBTEM-A5 thresholds were 6 mm (sensitivity 85%, specificity 83%, AUC: 0.934) and 9 mm (sensitivity 84%, specificity 69%, AUC: 0.874), respectively. MFD-A5 values (185 (27%) patients) were defined as a FIBTEM-A5 between 7 and 9 mm. More than 50% of MFD-C patients presenting a SI > 1, a hemoglobin level < 110 g L−1, or a base deficit > 5.0 mEq L−1 received fibrinogen. The relative risk [95% CI] for fibrinogen administration (SI > 1) were 1.39 [1.06–1.82] for MFD-C, and 2.17 [1.48–3.19] for MFD-A5. Results were not modified after adjustment on the ISS. Conclusions We have shown in this study an association between shock parameters and fibrinogen administration. Further studies are needed to determine how these parameters may be used to guide fibrinogen administration in trauma patients with MFD.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document