rapid urbanization
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2022 ◽  
Vol 85 ◽  
pp. 102432
Ther Aung ◽  
Pamela Jagger ◽  
Kay Thwe Hlaing ◽  
Khin Khin Han ◽  
Wakako Kobayashi

2022 ◽  
Fahad Ahmed ◽  
Shashwat Sharma ◽  
Loc Ho ◽  
Ming Chow

Rapid urbanization in the Global South exacerbates urban water management challenges such as urban flooding and water pollution, rendering many areas water-insecure. Our reliance on grey infrastructures to combat these water management challenges is not sustainable in the long run, due to which a better alternative must be sought. Nature-based Solution (NBS) promote ecosystem services and enhance climate resiliency along with flood control and improvement of water quality by utilizing natural elements including green spaces and water bodies within the urban environment. In the past few decades, NBS have been adapted for urban drainage in Global North and evolved by means of various terms based on geographic location, practices and applications. Some of these well-known terms include Low Impact Development (LIDs), Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS), Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) and Best Management Practices (BMPs). The transition towards a resilient and sustainable environment has been made possible through the application of NBS. Recently, countries in the Global South such as Singapore, Malaysia, Vietnam, and Thailand are trying to alter urban storm water management strategies through conversion of grey infrastructure to green infrastructure by employing various NBS techniques. The findings of this study show how NBS has influenced the Global South’s urban water management.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 934
Akhtar Rehman ◽  
Jun Qin ◽  
Amjad Pervez ◽  
Muhammad Sadiq Khan ◽  
Siddique Ullah ◽  

Land-use/land cover (LULC) changes have an impact on land surface temperature (LST) at the local, regional, and global scales. To simulate the LULC and LST changes of the environmentally important area of northern Pakistan, this research focused on spatio-temporal LULC and associated LST changes since 1987 and made predictions to 2047. We classified LULC from Landsat TM and ETM data, using the maximum probability supervised categorization approach. LST was retrieved using the Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE) methodology. Furthermore, we simulated LULC using the integrated approaches of Cellular Automata (CA) and Weighted Evidence (WE) and used a regression model to predict LST. The built-up areas and vegetation have increased by 2.1% and 11% due to a decline in the barren land by −8.5% during the last 30 years. The LULC is expected to increase, particularly the built-up and vegetation classes by 2.74% and 13.66%, respectively, and the barren land would decline by −4.2% by 2047. Consequently, the higher LST classes (i.e., 27 °C to <30 °C and ≥30 °C) soared up by about 25.18% and 34.26%, respectively, during the study period, which would further expand to 30.19% and 14.97% by 2047. The lower LST class (i.e., 12 °C to <21 °C) indicated a downtrend of about −41.29% and would further decrease to −3.13% in the next 30 years. The study findings are useful for planning and management, especially for climatologists, land-use planners, and researchers in sustainable land use with rapid urbanization.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 58
Alan Both ◽  
Lucy Gunn ◽  
Carl Higgs ◽  
Melanie Davern ◽  
Afshin Jafari ◽  

Confronted with rapid urbanization, population growth, traffic congestion, and climate change, there is growing interest in creating cities that support active transport modes including walking, cycling, or public transport. The ‘30 minute city’, where employment is accessible within 30 min by active transport, is being pursued in some cities to reduce congestion and foster local living. This paper examines the spatial relationship between employment, the skills of residents, and transport opportunities, to answer three questions about Australia’s 21 largest cities: (1) What percentage of workers currently commute to their workplace within 30 min? (2) If workers were to shift to an active transport mode, what percent could reach their current workplace within 30 min? and (3) If it were possible to relocate workers closer to their employment or relocate employment closer to their home, what percentage could reach work within 30 min by each mode? Active transport usage in Australia is low, with public transport, walking, and cycling making up 16.8%, 2.8%, and 1.1% respectively of workers’ commutes. Cycling was found to have the most potential for achieving the 30 min city, with an estimated 29.5% of workers able to reach their current workplace were they to shift to cycling. This increased to 69.1% if workers were also willing and able to find a similar job closer to home, potentially reducing commuting by private motor vehicle from 79.3% to 30.9%.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (3) ◽  
pp. 255-272
Akim M. Rahman

Recent years’ rapid urbanization and then rural to urban migration have created increasing demands of bricks usages in Bangladesh. However, brick industry has been largely using inefficient, dirty technology and burns woods-coal. It injects huge volume of CO2 in atmosphere. For policy guidance on the issue, this study analyzes the basic issues of CO2 emission from brickfields in terms of marginal damage (MD) analysis. Findings show that the marginal social costs are higher than marginal private (producer of bricks) costs where brickfields are benefiting with the expense of Bangladeshi society as a whole. As time passes by, rises of brick-prices have been causing upward trends of welfare losses where producers’ surpluses are dominating in the total surplus. This economic situation has been causing higher deadweight loss year after year. Addressing the issues, national strategies and policy actions are needed. Reforestation efforts can be achieved in multi-faucets: brick-fields’ charity, government policies on planting trees & policies on motivational efforts inspiring citizens of Bangladesh. Motivational policy can be: i) inspiring celebration individual’s “Birthday, Having 1st child in family and Event of marriage” by planting trees, ii) forcing to utilize green tech in brick kilns and iii) conducting academic research where financial supports are in need. Keywords: brickfields, effluent gases emission, causes social costs & deadweight loss, reforestation, motivational efforts of government policies

Land ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 119
Guolei Zhou ◽  
Jing Zhang ◽  
Chenggu Li ◽  
Yanjun Liu

As populations continue to be concentrated in cities, the world will become entirely urbanized, and urban space is undergoing a drastic evolution. Understanding the spatial pattern of conversion and expansion of functional urban land, in the context of rapid urbanization, helps us to grasp the trajectories of urban spatial evolution in greater depth from a theoretical and practical level. Using the ESRI ArcGIS 9.3 software platform, methods, such as overlay analysis, transition matrix, and kernel density estimation, were used in order to analyze the spatiotemporal characteristics of different types of functional urban land conversion and expansion in the central city of Changchun. The results show that different types of functional urban land were often expanded and replaced, and the urban spatial structure was constantly evolving. The conversion and expansion of functional urban land show similar characteristics to concentric zone and sector modes and show dynamic changes in different concentric circles and directions at different periods. Our method can accurately identify the different types of functional urban land, and also explore the evolutionary trajectory of urban spatial structure. This study will help to coordinate the development of different functional urban spaces and to optimize the urban spatial structure in the future.

2022 ◽  
Taotao Jin ◽  
Wei Liu ◽  
Yu Wang ◽  
Ming Zhao ◽  
Yao Fu ◽  

Abstract Glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP) is a stable and persistent glycoprotein secreted by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi that plays important roles in sequestering soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil quality improvement. Rapid urbanization has led to serious greenspace soil disturbances, resulting in soil degradation. However, few researches have examined the effects of urbanization on GRSP and its influencing factors. In this study, impervious surface area (ISA) was selected as an indicator of urbanization intensity. A total of 184 soil samples were collected from the 0-20 cm soil layer in the Nanchang greenspace, China (505 km2). The GRSP content, soil properties, urban forest characteristics, and land-use configuration were determined and investigated. The results showed that total GRSP (TG) and easily extractable GRSP (EEG) averages were 2.38 and 0.57 mg·g-1, respectively. TG and EEG decreased by 16.22 % and 19.68 %, respectively, from low to heavy urbanization areas. Linear regression analysis revealed a negative correlation between SOC and GRSP/SOC. SOC decreased from 39.9 to 1.4 mg·g-1, while EEG/SOC and TG/SOC increased by about 17 % and 34 %, respectively, indicating the important contribution of GRSP to the SOC pool. Pearson and redundancy analysis showed that GRSP was positively correlated with soil SOC, P, N, vegetation richness, and tree height but negatively correlated with pH, bulk density, and impervious area. The partial least squares path model (PLS-PM) further showed that urbanization affected soil properties, forest characteristics, and land use factors leading to GRSP changes. This study revealed the effects and key influencing factors of urbanization on GRSP. In the future, urban greenspace soil improvement can be considered from the new perspective of enhancing GRSP soil content.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 502
Roberta Jacoby Cureau ◽  
Ilaria Pigliautile ◽  
Anna Laura Pisello

The rapid urbanization process brings consequences to urban environments, such poor air quality and the urban heat island issues. Due to these effects, environmental monitoring is gaining attention with the aim of identifying local risks and improving cities’ liveability and resilience. However, these environments are very heterogeneous, and high-spatial-resolution data are needed to identify the intra-urban variations of physical parameters. Recently, wearable sensing techniques have been used to perform microscale monitoring, but they usually focus on one environmental physics domain. This paper presents a new wearable system developed to monitor key multidomain parameters related to the air quality, thermal, and visual domains, on a hyperlocal scale from a pedestrian’s perspective. The system consisted of a set of sensors connected to a control unit settled on a backpack and could be connected via Wi-Fi to any portable equipment. The device was prototyped to guarantee the easy sensors maintenance, and a user-friendly dashboard facilitated a real-time monitoring overview. Several tests were conducted to confirm the reliability of the sensors. The new device will allow comprehensive environmental monitoring and multidomain comfort investigations to be carried out, which can support urban planners to face the negative effects of urbanization and to crowd data sourcing in smart cities.

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
pp. e0010094
Li Shen ◽  
Minghao Sun ◽  
Xiao Wei ◽  
Yao Bai ◽  
Qingwu Hu ◽  

Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is a zoonosis characterized by clinical features of high fever, hemorrhage, and renal damage. China has the largest number of HFRS cases worldwide, accounting for over 90% of the total reported cases. In this paper, we used surveyed HFRS data and satellite imagery to conduct geostatistical analysis for investigating the associations of rapid urbanization, water bodies, and other factors on the spatiotemporal dynamics of HFRS from year 2005 to 2018 in Xi’an City, Northwest China. The results revealed an evident epidemic aggregation in the incidence of HFRS within Xi’an City with a phenomenal fluctuation in periodic time series. Rapid urbanization was also found to greatly affect the HFRS incidence in two different time phases. HFRS caused by urbanization influences farmers to a lesser extent than it does to non-farmers. The association of water bodies with the HFRS incidence rate was found to be higher within the radii of 696.15 m and 1575.39 m, which represented significant thresholds. The results also showed that geomatics approaches can be used for spatiotemporally investigating the HFRS dynamic characteristics and supporting effective allocations of resources to formulate strategies for preventing epidemics.

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