With the acceleration of industrialization and urbanization in China, wastewater treatment is increasing yearly. As a by-product of wastewater treatment, the gasification of sludge with coal in chemical looping process is a clean and efficient conversion technology. To explore the reaction behavior of cogasification of sludge and coal with iron-based oxygen carriers (OCs) for producing hydrogen-rich syngas, the experiment of cogasification using Fe2O3/Al2O3 as OC in a fluidized bed reactor was conducted. The result showed that the volume percentage of hydrogen (H2) and syngas yield is proportional to the amount of sludge added. The optimal operation conditions were: temperature at 900 °C, the mass ratio of OC to coal at 5.80 and mass ratio of sludge to coal at 0.2. Under this operating condition, the volume percentage of H2 and syngas yield in the flue gas was 75.6 vol% and 97.5 L·min-1·kg-1, respectively. Besides, the OC showed a stable reactivity in the sixth redox cycle with added sludge. However, the reactivity of OC significantly declined in the seventh and eighth redox cycles. It was recovered when the ash was separated. The decrease in the specific surface area of the OC caused by ash deposition is the main reason for the decline in its reactivity. The kinetic analysis showed that the random pore model describes the reaction mechanism of sludge/coal chemical looping gasification (CLG). The addition of sludge can reduce the activation energy of coal CLG reaction, accelerate the gasification reaction rate and increase the carbon conversion.
Chemical looping biomass gasification is a novel technology converting biomass into syngas, and the selection of oxygen carrier is key for efficient tar conversion. The performance of LaFe1-xNix as a robust catalytic oxygen carrier was investigated in the chemical looping conversion of toluene (tar model compound) into syngas in a fixed bed. LaM (M = Fe, Ni, Mn, Co, and Cu) was initially compared to evaluate the effect of transition metal on toluene conversion. LaFe (partial oxidation) and LaNi (catalytic pyrolysis) exhibited better performance in promoting syngas production than other oxygen carriers. Therefore, Ni-substituted ferrite LaFe1-xNix (x = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1) was further developed. The effects of Ni-substitution, steam/carbon ratio (S/C), and temperature on toluene conversion into C1 and H2 were evaluated. Results showed that the synergistic effect of Fe and Ni promoted toluene conversion, improving H2 yield yet with serious carbon deposition. Steam addition promoted toluene steam reforming and carbon gasification. With S/C increasing from 0.8 to 2.0, the C1 and H2 yield increased from 73.9% to 97.5% and from 197.7% to 269.6%, respectively. The elevated temperature favored toluene conversion and C1 yield. LaFe0.6Ni0.4 exhibited strong reactivity stability during toluene conversion at S/C = 1.6 and 900 °C.