The fast depletion of fossil fuels has attracted researchers worldwide to explore alternative biofuels, such as biodiesel. In general, the production of biodiesel is carried out via transesterification processes of vegetable oil with the presence of a suitable catalyst. A mixed metal oxide has shown to be a very attractive heterogeneous catalyst with a high performance. Most of the mixed metal oxide is made by using the general wetness impregnation method. A simple route to synthesize silane-modified mixed metal oxide (CaO-CuO/C6) catalysts has been successfully developed. A fluorocarbon surfactant and triblock copolymers (EO)106(PO)70(EO)106 were used to prevent the crystal agglomeration of carbonate salts (CaCO3-CuCO3) as the precursor to form CaO-CuO with a definite size and morphology. The materials show high potency as a catalyst in the transesterification process to produce biodiesel. The calcined co-precipitation product has a high crystallinity form, as confirmed by the XRD analysis. The synthesized catalyst was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX). The mechanism of surface modification and the effects of the catalytic activity were also discussed. The biodiesel purity of the final product was analyzed by gas chromatography. The optimum biodiesel yield was 90.17% using the modified mixed metal oxide CaO-CuO/C6.
Composite catalysts of mixed metal oxides were prepared by mixing a phase-pure M1 MoVNbTeOx with anatase-phase TiO2. Two methods were used to prepare the composite catalysts (the simple physically mixed or sol-gel method) for the improvement of the catalytic performance in the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane (ODHE) process. The results showed that TiO2 particles with a smaller particle size were well dispersed on the M1 surface for the sol-gel method, which presented an excellent activity for ODHE. At the same operating condition (i.e., the contact time of 7.55 gcat·h/molC2H6 and the reaction temperature of 400 °C), the M1-TiO2-SM and M1-TiO2-PM achieved the space time yields of 0.67 and 0.52 kgC2H4/kgcat/h, respectively, which were about ~76% and ~35% more than that of M1 catalyst (0.38 kgC2H4/kgcat/h), respectively. The BET, ICP, XRD, TEM, SEM, H2-TPR, C2H6-TPSR, and XPS techniques were applied to characterize the catalysts. It was noted that the introduction of TiO2 raised the V5+ abundance on the catalyst surface as well as the reactivity of active oxygen species, which made contribution to the promotion of the catalytic performance. The surface morphology and crystal structure of used catalysts of either M1-TiO2-SM or M1-TiO2-PM remained stable as each fresh catalyst after 24 h time-on-stream tests.
In this article, an in-depth optical investigation of Zn(Al)O-mixed metal oxide (MMO) film using Zn/Al-layered double hydroxide (LDH) was elucidated through co-precipitation and spin coating techniques. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) analysis revealed the occurrence of a vertically aligned sheet-like structure with a thickness of 60 nm for pristine LDH, which further reduced to 45 nm after calcination at 300 °C. Additionally, pristine LDH showed multiple optical bandgaps of 5.18, 3.6, and 3.2 eV. Moreover, a good agreement of the obtained optical bandgaps was attained between both utilized methods, ultraviolet-visible light (UV-Vis), and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopies. The optical bandgap decreased at higher calcination temperatures, which indicates the active role of the applied post-fabrication process on the optical profile of the deposited MMO film/s. The demonstrated transmittance spectra of the deposited MMO films exhibited a transparency between 85% and 95%; this indicates the usefulness and consistency of the proposed film for transparent conductive oxide (TCO) based optoelectronic applications.