steam reforming
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Fuel ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 312 ◽  
pp. 122910
Enara Fernandez ◽  
Laura Santamaria ◽  
Maite Artetxe ◽  
Maider Amutio ◽  
Aitor Arregi ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 429 ◽  
pp. 132286
Weiqin Lu ◽  
Rongjun Zhang ◽  
Sam Toan ◽  
Ran Xu ◽  
Feiyi Zhou ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 226 ◽  
pp. 107077
Siqian Zhang ◽  
Wanpeng Hu ◽  
Xiaan Xiang ◽  
Haiyang Xu ◽  
Zhangfeng Shen ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Riccardo Balzarotti ◽  
Matteo Ambrosetti ◽  
Alessandra Beretta ◽  
Gianpiero Groppi ◽  
Enrico Tronconi

Structured catalysts are strong candidates for the intensification of non-adiabatic gas-solid catalytic processes thanks to their superior heat and mass transfer properties combined with low pressure drops. In the past two decades, different types of substrates have been proposed, including honeycomb monoliths, open-cell foams and, more recently, periodic open cellular structures produced by additive manufacturing methods. Among others, thermally conductive metallic cellular substrates have been extensively tested in heat-transfer limited exo- or endo-thermic processes in tubular reactors, demonstrating significant potential for process intensification. The catalytic activation of these geometries is critical: on one hand, these structures can be washcoated with a thin layer of catalytic active phase, but the resulting catalyst inventory is limited. More recently, an alternative approach has been proposed, which relies on packing the cavities of the metallic matrix with catalyst pellets. In this paper, an up-to-date overview of the aforementioned topics will be provided. After a brief introduction concerning the concept of structured catalysts based on highly conductive supports, specific attention will be devoted to the most recent advances in their manufacturing and in their catalytic activation. Finally, the application to the methane steam reforming process will be presented as a relevant case study of process intensification. The results from a comparison of three different reactor layouts (i.e. conventional packed bed, washcoated copper foams and packed copper foams) will highlight the benefits for the overall reformer performance resulting from the adoption of highly conductive structured internals.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 608
Lukasz Szablowski ◽  
Olaf Dybinski ◽  
Arkadiusz Szczesniak ◽  
Jaroslaw Milewski

The paper presents a mathematical model of a molten carbonate fuel cell with a catalyst in the anode channel. The modeled system is fueled by methane. The system includes a model of the steam reforming process occurring in the anode channel of the MCFC fuel cell and the model of the cell itself. A reduced order model was used to describe the operation of the molten carbonate fuel cell, whereas a kinetic model describes the methane steam reforming. The calculations of the reforming were done in Aspen HYSYS software. Four values of the steam-to-carbon ratio (2.0, 2.5, 3.0, and 3.5) were used to analyze the performance of the reforming process. In the first phase, the reaction kinetics model was based on data from the literature.

Peiran Zhao ◽  
Abbas Tamadon ◽  
Dirk Pons

CONTEXT– Energy is widely involved in human activity and corresponding emissions of SOX, NOX and CO2 from energy generation processes affect global climate change. Clean fuels are desired by society because of their reduced greenhouse gas emissions. Hydrogen is once such candidate fuel. Much hydrogen is produced from fossil fuel, with biomass being an alternative process. OBJECTIVE– The project compared the environmental impact of hydrogen production by natural gas steam reforming vs. biomass gasification. METHOD–Environmental impact was calculated from the input and output data from life cycle inventory analysis. The impact assessment was focused on greenhouse gas emission, acidification, and eutrophication. Models of the two processes were developed and analysed in OpenLCA. The agribalyse database was used to connect inventory flow data to environmental impacts. FINDINGS– For all three metrics, biomass gasification had lower impacts than natural gas steam reforming, sometimes by large margins. For biomass gasification the silica sand production contributes most to all three impact categories, whereas for natural gas steam reforming it is the LPG extraction.

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