The dry roll-type electrostatic coal beneficiation technology under high voltage is used to study the beneficiation of low-grade and high-ash coal in Inner Mongolia, northern China. The optimal coal beneficiation conditions are determined by adjusting three parameters: the electrode voltage, the distance between the electrode and the drum, and the angle θ of the electrode. The best quality clean coal is obtained under the condition of voltage of 30 kV, angle θ of 75°, and electrode distance of 7 cm. Moreover, after separation, the quality of clean coal accounted for 48.41% of the raw coal mass, while the ash ratio decreased from 38.6% of the raw coal to 18.71% of the clean coal, which significantly improves the coal usability. Finally, through the methods of combustion characteristics analysis, infrared spectrum analysis, and combustion exhaust gas analysis of raw and clean coal, it is proven that the roll-type electrostatic separation technology has a high coal beneficiation effect on the high-ash, low-grade coal in Inner Mongolia.