electronic waste
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2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 001-011
Yete Pélagie ◽  
Togbe FC Alexis ◽  
Yovo Franck ◽  
Suanon Fidèle ◽  
Sidohounde Assou ◽  

Natural minerals are a powerful tool in politics when some have a major role in production. Its depletion is now a hot topic worldwide. Thus, the safety of the environment, natural surface water, groundwater and the protection of soils from chronic contamination by metallic and inorganic elements is a global concern. Indeed, industrialization and development have led to the generation of huge and varied amounts of waste, including electronic waste (e-waste), which is released into the environment. Although e-waste is classified as hazardous, most of it is not recycled and developed countries with strict environmental protection legislation send most of their e-waste to developing countries where regulations are lax. These electronic devices and components after being used are simply dumped into the environment due to lack of treatment and recycling strategy. As a result, they become a threat to the environment, ecosystems and humans. African countries are among the most vulnerable nations. But they are unfortunately ignored and underestimated. To date, there is no e-waste recycling unit (factory) in most African countries and mainly in the Republic of Benin. In response to this challenge, this study explored the different techniques used for the recycling of waste electrical/electronic equipment in order to develop a new environmentally friendly approach in future work, for the extraction and recycling of the usual and valuable metallic elements contained in electronic waste (printed circuit boards) released into the environment. For this purpose, a bibliographic research was carried out from 20 April to 16 October 2021. The results obtained allowed us to identify the advantages and disadvantages of existing recycling methods.

2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Prasanth Bhatt ◽  
Swamynathan Ganesan ◽  
Infant Santhose ◽  
Thirumurugan Durairaj

Abstract Phytoremediation is a process which effectively uses plants as a tool to remove, detoxify or immobilize contaminants. It has been an eco-friendly and cost-effective technique to clean contaminated environments. The contaminants from various sources have caused an irreversible damage to all the biotic factors in the biosphere. Bioremediation has become an indispensable strategy in reclaiming or rehabilitating the environment that was damaged by the contaminants. The process of bioremediation has been extensively used for the past few decades to neutralize toxic contaminants, but the results have not been satisfactory due to the lack of cost-effectiveness, production of byproducts that are toxic and requirement of large landscape. Phytoremediation helps in treating chemical pollutants on two broad categories namely, emerging organic pollutants (EOPs) and emerging inorganic pollutants (EIOPs) under in situ conditions. The EOPs are produced from pharmaceutical, chemical and synthetic polymer industries, which have potential to pollute water and soil environments. Similarly, EIOPs are generated during mining operations, transportations and industries involved in urban development. Among the EIOPs, it has been noticed that there is pollution due to heavy metals, radioactive waste production and electronic waste in urban centers. Moreover, in recent times phytoremediation has been recognized as a feasible method to treat biological contaminants. Since remediation of soil and water is very important to preserve natural habitats and ecosystems, it is necessary to devise new strategies in using plants as a tool for remediation. In this review, we focus on recent advancements in phytoremediation strategies that could be utilized to mitigate the adverse effects of emerging contaminants without affecting the environment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 935
Preetiman Kaur ◽  
Shivani Sharma ◽  
Fawziah M. Albarakaty ◽  
Anu Kalia ◽  
Mohamed M. Hassan ◽  

Industrialization and technological advancements have led to the exploitation of natural resources and the production of hazardous wastes, including electronic waste (E-waste). The traditional physical and chemical techniques used to combat E-waste accumulation have inherent drawbacks, such as the production of harmful gases and toxic by-products. These limitations may be prudently addressed by employing green biological methods, such as biosorption and bioleaching. Therefore, this study was aimed at evaluating the biosorption and bioleaching potential of seven microbial cultures using E-waste (printed circuit board (PCB)) as a substrate under submerged culture conditions. The cut pieces of PCB were incubated with seven microbial cultures in liquid broth conditions in three replicates. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) analysis of the culture biomass and culture filtrates was performed to evaluate and screen the better-performing microbial cultures for biosorption and bioleaching potentials. The best four cultures were further evaluated through SEM, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) studies to identify the possible culture that can be utilized for the biological decontamination of E-waste. The study revealed the highest and differential ability of Pleurotus florida and Pseudomonas spp. for biosorption and bioleaching of copper and iron. This can be attributed to bio-catalysis by the laccase enzyme. For both P. florida and Pseudomonas spp. on the 20th day of incubation, laccase exhibited higher specific activity (6.98 U/mg and 5.98 U/mg, respectively) than other microbial cultures. The biomass loaded with Cu2+ and Fe2+ ions after biosorption was used for the desorption process for recovery. The test cultures exhibited variable copper recovery efficiencies varying between 10.5 and 18.0%. Protein characterization through SDS-PAGE of four promising microbial cultures exhibited a higher number of bands in E-waste as compared with microbial cultures without E-waste. The surface topography studies of the E-waste substrate showed etching, as well as deposition of vegetative and spore cells on the surfaces of PCB cards. The EDX studies of the E-waste showed decreases in metal element content (% wt/% atom basis) on microbial treatment from the respective initial concentrations present in non-treated samples, which established the bioleaching phenomenon. Therefore, these microbial cultures can be utilized to develop a biological remediation method to manage E-waste.

Emanuel Carlos ◽  
Rita Branquinho ◽  
Elina Jansson ◽  
Jaakko H Leppaniemi ◽  
José Menezes ◽  

Abstract Printed metal oxide devices have been widely desired in flexible electronic applications to allow direct integration on foils and to reduce electronic waste and associated costs. Especially, semiconductor devices made from non-critical raw materials, such as Zn, Sn (and not, for example, In), have gained much interest. Despite considerable progress in the field, the upscale requirements from lab to fab scale to produce these materials and devices remain a challenge. In this work, we report the importance of solution combustion synthesis (SCS) when compared with sol-gel in the production of zinc tin oxide (ZTO) thin films using a solvent (1-methoxypropanol) that has lower environmental impact than the widely used and toxic 2-methoxyethanol. To assure the compatibility with low-cost flexible substrates in high-throughput printing techniques, a low annealing temperature of 140 ºC was achieved for these thin films by combining SCS and infrared (IR) annealing in a short processing time. These conditions allowed the transition from spin-coating (lab scale) to flexographic printing (fab scale) at a printing speed of 10 m/min in a roll-to-roll (R2R) pilot line. The ZTO (1:1 Zn:Sn-ratio) diodes show a rectification ratio of 103, a low operation voltage (≤ 3 V), promising reproducibility and low variability. The results provide the basis for further optimization (device size, encapsulation) to meet the requirements of diodes in flexible electronics applications such as passive-matrix addressing, energy harvesting and rectification.

Geosciences ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 31
Oluwaseun H. Anselm ◽  
Christine M. Davidson ◽  
Aderonke O. Oyeyiola ◽  
Temilola O. Oluseyi

Informal recycling of electronic waste leads to soil contamination that can impact human health. To accurately assess exposure to potentially toxic elements (PTE) in soil it is necessary to consider their bioavailability through ingestion, inhalation and dermal contact. However, bioaccessibility tests that estimate dermal absorption following adhesion of contaminated soil particles to skin are not well established. In this study the concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were estimated in the <45 µm particle size fraction of a bulk composite soil from an e-waste recycling site using five different artificial sweat formulations. Extractions were performed at temperatures ranging from 17 to 47 °C to investigate the effect of ambient temperature on bioaccessibility. Results obtained using the different artificial sweats were not consistent with one another. In particular, the NIHS 96-10 formulation solubilized larger amounts of analytes (ranging from 6.3 times the next most effective extractant for Cu to 1700 times the next most effective for Pb). There was a general increase in release of PTE with increasing temperature, except for As. Although trends varied between analytes and formulations, this highlights the need to consider ambient temperature when estimating dermal bioaccessibility of PTE in soil.

2022 ◽  

Abstract Globally, the technological era has seemingly increased the environmental burden of many Low income countries in the management of electronic waste. An increase in the use of electrical and electronic equipment potentially relates to an increase in e-waste in the environment. Poorly managed ewaste degrades the environment in various ways such as through percolation of toxicants into the soils and leaching into aquatic systems. As Zambia steadily develops, the use of EEEs is a major threat in the increased amounts of e-waste thus placing more demand on environmental institutions as well as wellestablished and sustainable e-waste management systems. Environmental issues are complex and diverse, in this view; waste management is an integral part of a sustainable environment thus making effective electronic waste management categorically fundamental. This study employed a mixed method approach (concurrent nested) to assess the effectiveness of electronic waste management facilities in Lusaka. In this study, the inclusion and exclusion criteria were used so as to select the participants by use of questionnaires and interviews. This study showed that in Zambia, e-waste has not been given the same attention as other waste types. The knowledge base of electrical and electronic equipment users is very shallow as this study indicated that most EEE consumers have little or no knowledge of the toxic components of electronic waste. Further, available environmental institutions do not currently have the capacity to quantify e-waste that is generated in the country. Moreover, the e-waste that is appropriately disposed of is exported to neighboring countries recycling. The study concluded that Zambia lacks the needed expertise and facilities to adequately handle e-waste. However, information obtained from EEE users and e-waste generators clearly indicated that inasmuch as there could be efforts by environmental institutions to manage e-waste, there hasn’t been local authority effort to specifically handle e-waste or rather sensitize the users of EEEs on e-waste issues. The study thus recommended the following; creation of e-waste black market, further Studies, Laws to prohibit dumping of e-waste, Promotion of E-waste education amongst EEE users, Promotion of E-waste education amongst EEE users, Repurpose old devices before purchasing new ones.

2022 ◽  
pp. 295-329
Kurniawan Kurniawan ◽  
Sookyung Kim ◽  
Jae-chun Lee

2022 ◽  
Vol 230 ◽  
pp. 113132
Xiaojing Zhu ◽  
Zhigang Li ◽  
Chen Guo ◽  
Ziye Wang ◽  
Zhanshan Wang ◽  

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