Oil Palm Frond
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Shahril Mohamad ◽  
Luqman Chuah Abdullah ◽  
Saidatul Shima Jamari ◽  
Syeed Saifulazry Osman Al Edrus ◽  
Min Min Aung ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (43) ◽  
pp. 102
Moursalou Koriko ◽  
Sanonka Tchegueni ◽  
Fouad Alassani ◽  
Koffi Agbegnigan Degbe ◽  
Gado Tchangbedji

Ce présent travail a porté sur l’extraction et la caractérisation physico-chimique d’un sel végétal fabriqué à base du palmier à huile. L’incinération des branches de palmier à huile donne une cendre qui, par lavage et évaporation donne du sel de palme. L’analyse de la solution obtenue après lavage de cette cendre à l’eau distillée par photométrie à flamme, spectrométrie à absorption atomique et par volumétrie révèle la présence de sodium (84,500 mg/L), potassium (1120 mg/L), calcium (44 mg/L) et magnésium (0,022 mg/L). Ce résultat indique que cette solution est très riche en potassium qu’en sodium et calcium ; le magnésium est présent sous forme de trace. En outre, l’analyse de la cendre obtenue à base de la rafle a révélé que les teneurs en potassium (3331,410 mg/L) et en sodium (497 mg/L) de la rafle sont plus élevées que celles de la branche du palmier à huile. Cependant, le dosage des anions dans une solution obtenue par dissolution de 10 grammes de sel de palme dans un litre d’eau distillée révèle la présence de chlorures (3153,460 mg/L), des hydroxydes (0,289 mg/L), des carbonates (0,180 mg/L) et des hydrogénocarbonates (12,017mg/L). Les concentrations de ces anions indiquent que cette solution est très riche en chlorure qu’aux autres anions trouvés. Par conséquent, le sel de palme est un mélange de sels riche en chlorure de potassium. La quantité de sel végétal obtenue à la préparation contrôlée rapportée à la biomasse végétale est de l’ordre de 1,24% donc assez faible. This paper focuses on the extraction and physic-chemical characterization of plant salt produced from oil palm. The incineration of the oil palm frond gives ash which, by washing and evaporation, gives plant salt. The analysis of the solution obtained after washing the ash by flame photometer, atomic absorption spectrometer and by volumetric reveals the presence of sodium (84.500 mg / L), potassium (1120 mg / L), calcium mg / L) and magnesium (0.022 mg / L). These results show that this solution is very rich in potassium more than sodium and calcium; the magnesium is revealed only in trace. In addition, the analysis on the Empty Fruit Bunche’s ash reveals that it contains more potassium (3331.410 mg/L) and sodium (497 mg/L) than the frond. However, the dosage of a solution obtained by dissolving 10 grams of palm salt in one liter of water also reveals the presence of chloride (3153.460 mg / L), hydroxides (0.289 mg / L), carbonate (0.180 mg / L) and hydrogen carbonate (12.017 mg / L). The concentration of these anions shows that this solution is richer in chloride than the other anions found. Therefore, palm salt is a mixture of salt rich in potassium chloride. The output of the preparation controlled is lower (1.24%) in comparison with the vegetable biomass.


Anaerobic co-digestion of oil palm frond waste with cow-manure was evaluated. The study aimed to evaluate a stepwise organic load with an increase solid concentration to the on-going anaerobic digestion of cow manure. The anaerobic digestion process was operated in continuous mode under the mesophilic condition. Results showed that the maximum methane productivity of 1700 ml CH4∙day-1 was obtained when the anaerobic co-digestion of OPFW and cow manure was loaded with the substrate concentration between 4 and 8% TS. The pH culture dropped dramatically from 6.9 to 6.3 when substrate concentration was increased from 10 to 12% TS. The acidic pH had restricted the conversion of organic materials in which the COD removal was less than 25% removal. This study is exceedingly notable for the industrial development of waste management processes, which handle and treat tons of organic wastes daily.

N. A. Nata ◽  
F. Mohd Said ◽  
S. Md [email protected] Nawi ◽  
N. Harun

Lovastatin is a potent drug for lowering the blood cholesterol. It is a competitive inhibitor of 3-hyroxy3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, which is a key enzyme in the cholesterol production pathway. Lovastatin increases the good cholesterol or high-density lipoproteins to prevent the formation of plaque inside the blood vessels. This study aims to develop a process model of lovastatin production, produced by Monascus purpureus under solid-state fermentation using oil palm frond. SuperPro Design V9.5 software was used to develop and simulate the process model. Three parameters which are initial moisture content, composition of peptone and potassium, were varied to investigate their effects on lovastatin production. The optimum condition simulated using the process model at pH 7 with 60% initial moisture content, 0.0075 kg/hr of potassium, and 0.0075 kg/hr of peptone was able to produce 0.0288 kg/kg of lovastatin. The simulated results show good agreement with experimental work, with low percentage error of 5.77%, and provide a good approximation on the production of lovastatin under various process operating conditions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (2) ◽  
pp. 20-26
N. S. Osman ◽  
M. L. Ismail ◽  
N. Sapawe

This research investigates the potential of the oil palm frond (OPF), a well-known biomass from the oil palm industry, as a feasible silica precursor that can be utilised in the removal of phenol from an aqueous solution. Dried OPF was combusted to obtain OPF ash that was treated with citric acid before being synthesised as silica nanomaterial via the sol-gel method. The FTIR results of synthesised silica exhibit a similar peak with commercially available silica. Silica material was then used for phenol removal under different parameters including pH, contact time, dosage, concentration, and temperature, then analysed using UV-Vis Spectrophotometer. The optimum condition was obtained at pH 7 within 45 mins of contact time using 0.2 g/L silica dosage under 10 ppm of phenol concentration at 303 K that aid in enhancing phenol removal by the OPF-based silica. At this condition, silica nanomaterial successfully removed up to 68% of phenol in an aqueous solution with adsorption capacity of the adsorbent is within the range of 34 mg/g. These results demonstrate the potential application of silica nanomaterial from OPF as an adsorbent in phenol removal from wastewater.

Fermentation ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 218
Pin Chanjula ◽  
Chanon Suntara ◽  
Anusorn Cherdthong

This study aimed to examine the combined effects of urea and calcium hydroxide ensiled oil palm fronds on rumen fermentation and digestibility of Thai native-Anglo Nubian goats. A 4 × 4 Latin square design was used to randomly assign four male crossbred goats (Thai native × Anglo Nubian). The dietary treatments were as follows: ensiled oil palm frond with no additives (EOPF as the control), urea 5% (50 g/kg fresh matter) (E-UOPF 5%), calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) 5% (50 g/kg fresh matter) (E-CaOPF 5%), and combination of urea 2.5% (25 g/kg fresh matter) with Ca(OH)2 (25 g/kg fresh matter) (E-UCOPF 2.5%). The oil palm frond ensiled with different additives did not change the DM intake (p > 0.05). The total TMR intakes range from 69.39 to 77.09 g/kg BW0.75. The goats fed with E-UOPF 5.0% consumed significantly more CP than the other groups (p < 0.05). The E-UCOPF increased ME intake by 4.8%, compared with the control treatment (p < 0.05). E-UOPF 5% and E-UCOPF 2.5% significantly increased the CP digestibility by 19.7% and 17.1%, respectively (p < 0.05). Furthermore, E-CaOPF 5.0% and E-UCOPF 2.5% improved the NDF digestibility by about 10.9% and 9.90%, respectively (p < 0.05). The urea-containing oil palm frond (E-UOPF 5.0% and E-UCOPF 2.5%) had higher blood urea nitrogen (BUN) than the other groups (p < 0.05). The TVFA of goats fed E-UCOPF 2.5% was approximately 15.8% higher than that of goats provide EOPF (p < 0.05). The mean concentration of C3 increased by 7.90% and 11.61%, respectively, when E-CaOPF 5.0% and E-UCOPF 2.5% were provided instead of EOPF (p < 0.05). The total N intake and absorbed were highest (p < 0.05) when goats offered E-UOPF 5.0% (p < 0.05). The goats fed oil palm frond without additives had the lowest percentage of N-absorption/N intake (p < 0.05). This study clearly shows that the most suitable treatment is E-UCOPF 2.5%, which enhances DMD, nutrient digestibility, TVFAs, and nitrogen balance and has no negative effects on rumen microbes. This indicates that E-UCOPF 2.5% may be utilized as an alternate roughage source in TMR diets, accounting for at least 40% of the OPF. However, several factors still require consideration for urea-Ca(OH)2 treatments to be successful, including other concentrations of urea, moisture content, duration of pre-treatment, and the metabolizable protein system.

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