chemical characterization
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2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
T. S. C. Batista ◽  
G. S. Barros ◽  
F. C. Damasceno ◽  
E. A. F. Cândido ◽  
M. V. A. Batista

Abstract This study evaluated the effect of the volatile oil of Alpinia zerumbet (VOAz) on caveolin-1 gene expression and muscular fibrosis. The rats were immobilized to induce fibrosis of the gastrocnemius muscle, and they were treated with VOAz. Collagen quality was assessed by histology and the expression of the caveolin-1 (CAV-1) gene was evaluated using qPCR. Histomorphological analysis indicated a significant reduction in the perimeter, width, and intensity of collagen in the treated groups, thus showing that the oil was effective in regulating the quality of collagen at the three concentrations. The results of expression levels suggested a decrease in the lesioned group and in two treatment groups (0.0115 µg/g and 0.009 µg/g). However, with the lowest concentration (0.0065 µg/g), no significant difference was observed, with levels similar to those found in healthy tissue. Therefore, the results showed that VOAz has the potential to be a non-invasive and low-cost alternative to aid in the treatment of muscular fibrosis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 115 ◽  
pp. 265-276
Min Xu ◽  
Zirui Liu ◽  
Bo Hu ◽  
Guangxuan Yan ◽  
Jianan Zou ◽  

Olufunso O. Abosede

Abstract: In the recent past, the pharmaceutical modification of drug molecules by complexation with biologically relevant metals to improve their properties such as stability, dissolution rate, absorption and bioavailability has been extensively studied. In order to achieve better and enhanced medicinal activity, vanadyl complexes of the widely used lincomycin (Lin-van) and neomycin (Neo-van) have been synthesized and their physico-chemical properties examined. The UV-Vis absorption properties of these complexes were determined and their antimicrobial activities were tested against some pathogenic organisms viz: Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumonae, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. In all cases, Neo-van showed better antimicrobial activity than Lin-van while both complexes showed better activity than the antibiotic lincomycin and the previously reported Cu-Lin. Keywords: lincomycin, neomycin, UV-Vis spectroscopy, Physico-chemical, Oxovanadyl, synthesis

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 524
Dmitry A. Bunin ◽  
Nobuhle Ndebele ◽  
Alexander G. Martynov ◽  
John Mack ◽  
Yulia G. Gorbunova ◽  

The synthesis and characterization of A3B-type phthalocyanines, ZnPc1–4, bearing bulky 2,6-diisopropylphenoxy-groups or chlorine atoms on isoindoline units “A” and either one or two carboxylic anchors on isoindoline unit “B” are reported. A comparison of molecular modelling with the conventional time dependent—density functional theory (TD-DFT) approach and its simplified sTD-DFT approximation provides further evidence that the latter method accurately reproduces the key trends in the spectral properties, providing colossal savings in computer time for quite large molecules. This demonstrates that it is a valuable tool for guiding the rational design of new phthalocyanines for practical applications.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (2) ◽  
pp. e1258
Vanda Adamcová ◽  
Martin Valica ◽  
Jozef Gubiš ◽  
Marcela Gubišová ◽  
Katarína Ondreičková ◽  

The aim of the work was to characterize the samples of sewage sludge (SSL) originated from the Wastewater Treatment Plant Piešťany (TAVOS, a.s., Trnava, Slovakia) in terms of their potential application into the soils. Within the physico-chemical characterization of SSL, the samples were analysed in terms of the values of pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), total organic carbon (TOC), water holding capacity (WHC), as well as the presence of heavy metals. It was found that SSL contained significant amounts of microelements Zn (1,269, d.w.) and Cu (224, d.w.). Laboratory lysimeter experiments involving the application of SSL into the top layer of agriculturally used soil (0 – 10 cm) forming a soil column, in which seedlings of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) were cultivated, showed that in the case of SSL application in the highest permitted amounts (15 t.ha-1) only 0.11 % Zn and 0.07 % Cu were released into the soil eluate during a 28 day of exposure, while in tobacco plants 0.13 % Zn and 0.05 % Cu were accumulated from the total amount of Zn and Cu originated from the application of SSL (Zn – 133 mg and Cu – 23.5 mg). When applying SSL in amount 30 t.ha-1 i.e., in the dose exceeding the permitted limits, only 0.02 % Zn and 0.04 % Cu were released into the soil eluate and 0.16 % Zn and 0.09 % Cu were accumulated in tobacco plants from the applied amount of SSL (Zn – 267 mg and Cu – 47.0 mg).

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Nicolás M. Peleato

AbstractFluorescence spectroscopy can provide high-level chemical characterization and quantification that is suitable for use in online process monitoring and control. However, the high-dimensionality of excitation–emission matrices and superposition of underlying signals is a major challenge to implementation. Herein the use of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) is investigated to interpret fluorescence spectra and predict the formation of disinfection by-products during drinking water treatment. Using deep CNNs, mean absolute prediction error on a test set of data for total trihalomethanes, total haloacetic acids, and the major individual species were all < 6 µg/L and represent a significant difference improved by 39–62% compared to multi-layer perceptron type networks. Heat maps that identify spectral areas of importance for prediction showed unique humic-like and protein-like regions for individual disinfection by-product species that can be used to validate models and provide insight into precursor characteristics. The use of fluorescence spectroscopy coupled with deep CNNs shows promise to be used for rapid estimation of DBP formation potentials without the need for extensive data pre-processing or dimensionality reduction. Knowledge of DBP formation potentials in near real-time can enable tighter treatment controls and management efforts to minimize the exposure of the public to DBPs.

2022 ◽  
Jana Pilatova ◽  
Tomas Panek ◽  
Miroslav Obornik ◽  
Ivan Cepicka ◽  
Peter Mojzes

Despite the widespread occurrence of crystalline inclusions in unicellular eukaryotes, scant attention has been paid to their composition, functions, and evolutionary origins, assuming just their inorganic contents. The advent of Raman microscopy, still scarcely used for biological samples, allowed chemical characterization of cellular inclusions in vivo. Using this method, herein we provide a substantial revision of the cellular crystalline inclusions across the broad diversity of eukaryotes examining all major supergroups. Surprisingly, here we show that 80 % of these crystalline inclusions contain purines, mostly anhydrous guanine (62 %), guanine monohydrate (2 %), uric acid (12 %) and xanthine (4 %). Hence, our findings indicate that purine biocrystallization is a very general and an ancestral eukaryotic process operating by an as-yet-unknown mechanism. Purine crystalline inclusions are high-capacity and rapid-turnover reserves of nitrogen of a great metabolic importance, as well as optically active elements, e.g., present in the light sensing eyespots of flagellates, possessing even more hypothetical functions. Thus, we anticipate our work to be a starting point for more in-depth studies of this phenomenon on the detailed level spanning from cell biology to global ecology, with further potential applications in biotechnologies, bio-optics or in human medicine.

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