Nutrient Composition
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Hanchen Tian ◽  
Yanchen Zhu ◽  
Mengxue Dai ◽  
Tong Li ◽  
Yongqing Guo ◽  

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different additives on the fermentation quality, nutrient composition, bacterial communities, and metabolic profiles of the silage of hybrid Pennisetum. The experiment was conducted using five treatments, i.e., CK, control group, MA, 1% malic acid of fresh matter (FM) basis, GL, 1% glucose of FM basis, CE, 100 U/g FM cellulase, and BS, 106 cfu/g FM Bacillus subtilis, with six replicates each treatment. After a 120-day fermentation, 30 silage packages were opened for subsequent determination. As a result, all four additives had positive effects on the fermentation quality and nutrient composition of the silage of hybrid Pennisetum. The high-throughput sequencing of V3–V4 regions in 16S rRNA was performed, and results showed that Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were the dominant phyla and that Aquabacterium and Bacillus were the dominant genera. MA, GL, CE, and BS treatment resulted in 129, 21, 25, and 40 differential bacteria, respectively. The four additives upregulated Bacillus smithii but downregulated Lactobacillus rossiae. Metabolic profiles were determined by UHPLC-Q/TOF-MS technology and the differential metabolites caused by the four additives were 47, 13, 47, and 18, respectively. These metabolites played antioxidant, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory functions and involved in pathways, such as the citrate cycle, carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms, and glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism. In conclusion, silage additives promoted fermentation quality and nutrient composition by altering bacterial communities and metabolic profiles. This study provided potential biomarkers for the improvement of silage quality.

2022 ◽  
pp. 101536
Bing Zhang ◽  
Ayesha Murtaza ◽  
Aamir Iqbal ◽  
Jiao Zhang ◽  
Tingting Bai ◽  

LWT ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 113076
Xi Hu ◽  
Jiarui Zeng ◽  
Fei Shen ◽  
Xuesen Xia ◽  
Xiaofei Tian ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (3) ◽  
pp. 989-1000
Tridib Kumar Sahoo

The study was conducted on two type of stands one was coppice sal (Shorea robusta Gaertn. F.) stand (CSS) managed by Forest Protection Committee (FPC) along with the State Forest Department and other was coppice eucalyptus (Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm.) stand (CES) solely managed by the State Forest Department. These two stands are in the Bhagabatichak forest area under Midnapore East Forest Division, West Bengal, India. In this study Importance Value Index (IVI), biomass, species diversity index (H/), concentration of dominance(Cd), species richness index(d), beta diversity(βd), index of similarity (IS), nutrient composition and soil pH of the two stands were measured. The study reveals that the highest numbers of species were available during monsoon period in both the stands; these were 71 and 43 respectively in CSS and CES. The result also shows that the highest IVI was occupied by sal in CSS and eucalyptus in CES in all the seasons. Other major species were Clerodendrum viscosum Vent, Lantana camara L., Combretum roxburghii Spreng. Highest diversity index (H/) was in CSS during monsoon (1.983) and minimum in CES during pre-monsoon (1.274). So, the species richness index (d) was higher in CSS during monsoon (28.259) and lower in CES during pre-monsoon (12.112).Cd shows the opposite trend, it was higher in CES during pre-monsoon (0.125) and lower in CSS during monsoon (0.042). β diversity reflects the rate of species change, which was highest in CSS during post-monsoon (1.300). The similarity index (IS) between the two stands was 64.91%. The total annual above ground biomass (agb) were 87008.043 kg ha-1 yr-1 in CSS and 86309.837 kg ha-1 yr-1 in CES. Among them major contributors were sal (82357.946 kg ha-1 yr-1) in CSS and eucalyptus (84246.358 kg ha-1 yr-1) in CES. In both the stands higher amount of nutrients were available in Combretum roxburghii. In CSS available NPK were 1.272%, 0.527% and 1.867% respectively in Combretum roxburghii. In CES the values were 0.864%, 0.513% and 1.724% respectively for the same species. Soil pH of CSS were 5.53 in top soil and 5.79 in subsoil, in CES soil pH were 4.88 and 5.02 in top soil and subsoil respectively. It was observed that sal stand was better than eucalyptus stand with respect to ecology and biodiversity.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 88-97
Jie Hung King ◽  
Babirye Khadijah ◽  
Kian Huat Ong

Stem cutting is the common planting material for black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) farmers mainly because the method is cheap, easy to obtain, and produces satisfactory number of new plantlets, which are relatively genetically uniform to their parent. However, soil propagation of stem cuttings renders both the stem and developing roots susceptible to soil borne pathogens, ultimately compromising the quality of the plant. Good quality rootstock of the new plant promotes faster, safer, and better black pepper plant establishment. Hydroponic farming thus offers a good platform for producing quality rootstock of the new plants and has gained importance to many farmers due to its flexibility in manipulating plant growth conditions and timely pathogen management, thus safer, healthier, and faster growth. This study investigated the growing media suitable for rootstock growth of P. nigrum L. cv. ‘Kuching’ and compared the rooting ability between stem cuttings with adventitious roots at the time of planting and stem cuttings without any root at the time of planting. In a laboratory setting, a total of 210 stem cuttings were hydroponically planted in seven nutrient compositions, with each nutrient composition containing an equal number of stem cuttings with adventitious roots at the time of planting and stem cuttings without any root at the time of planting. Hoagland solution supplemented with 0.005 mM potassium silicate solution (T4) and Hoagland solution supplemented with 2 mM salicylic acid solution (T6) showed faster root initiation whereas T1 (Hoagland solution only) produced the highest increment in root length followed by T6. The least suitable nutrient composition was T5 [T4 + 6 mL of 1 M Ca (NO3)2.4H2O solution]. The total number of roots was highest in plants from stem cuttings which had some adventitious roots at the time of planting, whereas roots in plants from stem cuttings which did not have any root at the time of planting, increased in root length faster than plants withstem cuttings which had adventitious roots at the time of planting.

Agro-Science ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
pp. 27-33
F.U. Ugwuona ◽  
I.S. Asogwa ◽  
N.A. Obeta ◽  
F.N. Okeke

Non-use of potassium bromate in bread making and printing of reproducible nutrition information/claims on bread labels are vital for consumers’ rights and protection in Nigeria. These norms are rarely observed by bread makers in Umuahia. This study evaluated nutrition information on labels, presence of potassium bromate, chemical composition and sensory characteristics of breads sold in Umuahia. Two structured questionnaires were constructed. The first was administered to 15 randomly selected full-time bread vendors in Umuahia metropolis to identify brands of market bread. The second was designed to analyze sensory quality of breads. Five sliced and five unsliced bread samples randomly selected from identified markets were analyzed for sensory properties using a 20-member sensory panelist, and for nutrient and phytochemical composition. Twenty-seven bread samples were identified; all labeled bromate-free, had varying recipes and nutrient claim/information on labels. The bread samples were bromate-free, high in carbohydrate (49.20% in B10 to 65.69% in B8) and moisture (22.67% in B8 to 38.16% in B10), but relatively low in crude protein (6.65% in B3 to 9.45% in B7) and fat (0.26% in B8 to 0.66% in B1). Ash contents ranged from 1.26% in B6 to 1.86% in B3and fiber contents from 1.24% in B2 to 1.76% in B5. Phytonutrients were low; and oxalate content ranged from 0.66 to 0.95%, tannin from 87.78 to 125.40 mg 100g–1 and phytate from 2.02 to 3.03 mg 100g–1. The bread samples had sensory scores ranging from 4.60 to 8.10 for over-all acceptability. They were all acceptable to panelists, but with B1 (sliced) and B8 (unsliced) most acceptable. Bread samples sold in Umuahia were bromate-free, varied in recipe, nutrition claims, and nutrient composition but were acceptable to panelists. 

Food Research ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (6) ◽  
pp. 266-273
S. Susanti ◽  
B. Dwiloka ◽  
V.P. Bintoro ◽  
A. Hintono ◽  
N. Nurwantoro ◽  

Healthy food has been a lifestyle trend in modern society since the last decades. Vegetable noodles as an alternative healthy food are often consumers’ choices considering that noodles are a favourite food today. This study aims to get more insight into the effect of spinach extract (SE) fortification on noodle dough toward antioxidant status, nutrition facts, and the sensory of wet spinach noodles (WSN) produced. The dough of wet noodle samples was treated by 4 different concentrations of SE fortification of 0, 0.4, 4.0, and 40 mg/mL in which for each treatment was quintuple. Results showed SE fortification had a significant effect on antioxidant status, some nutrient composition (protein, sugar, cholesterol, energy amount, iron, magnesium, and vitamin C), and sensory characteristics of the wet noodle. WSN with rich in antioxidants, low calories, and favoured by panellists was obtained at the optimum concentration of 4 mg/mL. Thus, SE was potential as food fortificant for developing WSN as a promising functional food product in the future.

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