Fermentation
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Updated Wednesday, 19 January 2022

Fermentation ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 33
Author(s):  
Yanfeng Liu ◽  
Bing Wan ◽  
Fan Yang ◽  
Xiaolong Zhang ◽  
Jianghua Li ◽  
...  

Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus panis are ethanol and lactic acid producers in Maotai-flavor Baijiu fermentation. Understanding their interaction is important to regulate the microbiome composition during fermentation and biosynthesis of ethanol and lactic acid. This study is the first to analyze the interaction between S. cerevisiae and L. panis at different growth phases during co-cultivation. Results showed that the different growth phases of S. cerevisiae modulated L. panis growth. Metabolomics analysis showed that amino acids and nucleoside secreted by S. cerevisiae promote L. panis growth, while ethanol inhibited L. panis growth. Furthermore, S. cerevisiae modulated L. panis cell growth under varying sugar concentrations. Simulated solid-state fermentation demonstrated that regulating the sugar concentration or the ratio of S. cerevisiae to L. panis could inhibit L. panis cell growth and reduce lactic acid accumulation. This study provided an understanding on Maotai-flavor Baijiu microbiome, which might be useful for metabolite regulation.


Fermentation ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 32
Author(s):  
Ayoyinka O. Olojede ◽  
Abiodun I. Sanni ◽  
Kolawole Banwo ◽  
Towobola Michael

Enriched gluten-free products are in high demand owing to increasing celiac disease worldwide. Sourdough fermentation can improve the quality of gluten-free cereals, rendering the resulting product beneficial as a functional food. This study produced sorghum bread (SB) using sourdough technology and evaluated the texture, nutrition profile, bioactive components, and sensory attributes of the product. The base formula was composed of sorghum flour and corn starch. Sourdough made with Pediococcus pentosaceus LD7 (PL7), P. pentosaceus SA8 (PS8), or Weissella confusa SD8 (WS8) was added at a 20% substitution level for bread production, while bread without sourdough addition was used as the control sample. The texture profiles of the SB were significantly (p ˂ 0.05) softer than that of the control. The sourdough breads possessed higher crude protein, ash, and dietary fibre contents than the control bread. Tannin and total phenol contents were significantly (p ˂ 0.05) higher in the sourdough breads compared to the control sample. The specific volume of the sample made with PS8 sourdough was the highest at 2.50 cm3/g compared to the other samples (2.17–2.46 cm3/g). The sourdough samples had higher scores for taste, texture, aroma, and overall acceptability than the control, with PL7 SB exhibiting the best overall acceptability (6.56). This study established promising use of sourdough with starters as an ingredient for baked products with improved technological and nutritional attributes as well as consumer acceptability.


Fermentation ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 31
Author(s):  
Răzvan Vasile Filimon ◽  
Claudiu-Ioan Bunea ◽  
Ancuța Nechita ◽  
Florin Dumitru Bora ◽  
Simona Isabela Dunca ◽  
...  

Malolactic fermentation (MLF) or biological decrease of wine acidity is defined as the enzymatic bioconversion of malic acid in lactic acid, a process performed by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The procedures for the isolation of new indigenous LAB strains from the red wines produced in Copou Iasi wine center (NE of Romania) undergoing spontaneous malolactic fermentation, resulted in the obtaining of 67 catalase-negative and Gram-positive LAB strains. After testing in the malolactic fermentative process, application of specific screening procedures and identification (API 50 CH), two bacterial strains belonging to the species Oenococcus oeni (strain 13-7) and Lactobacillus plantarum (strain R1-1) with high yield of malolactic bioconversion, non-producing biogenic amines, and with active extracellular enzymes related to wine aroma, were retained and characterized. Tested in synthetic medium (MRS-TJ) for 10 days, the new isolated LAB strains metabolized over 98% of the malic acid at ethanol concentrations between 10 and 14 % (v/v), low pH (>3.0), total SO2 doses up to 70 mg/L and temperatures between 15 and 35 °C, showing high potential for future use in the winemaking process as bacterial starter cultures, in order to obtain high quality wines with increased typicity.


Fermentation ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 30
Author(s):  
Mildred Melina Chigo-Hernandez ◽  
Aubrey DuBois ◽  
Elizabeth Tomasino

Cis-Rose oxide was found to be an important chiral compound in Gewürztraminer wine, with an enantiomeric ratio range from 76 to 58%. The enantiomeric ratio showed an important influence on white wine aroma when other monoterpenes were present. The aim of this study was to evaluate rose oxide at different ratios and changes to aroma perception, and the interaction of rose oxide with linalool and α-terpineol. A wine model was made based on Gewürztraminer wine. Twelve models were created with different ratios of rose oxide and concentrations of linalool and α-terpineol. Triangle tests, check-all-that-apply (CATA) and descriptive analysis were used to evaluate the aroma of the wines. Results show that the rose oxide ratios of 70:30 and 65:35 were statistically different. Additional descriptive analysis showed that the ratios altered aroma when linalool and α-terpineol were at low and medium concentrations. At high concentrations, linalool and α-terpineol masked any influence from rose oxide. Understanding how monoterpenes alter aroma perception of white wine when at different combinations and concentrations is important to achieving desired wine qualities and helps provide information on how flavor chemistry results can be interpreted without having to run sensory analysis.


Fermentation ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 29
Author(s):  
Seonyoung Kim ◽  
Ji Yeon Lee ◽  
Yulah Jeong ◽  
Chang-Ho Kang

Oxidative stress, which can cause imbalance in the body by damaging cells and tissues, arises from the immoderate production of reactive oxygen species (ROS)/reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Therefore, external supplements having antioxidant activity are required for reducing oxidative stress. In our study, we investigated DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging ability, and the inhibition effect on the nitric oxide (NO) production of 15 food-derived bacterial strains in LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells. Among these LAB strains, eight strains with an excellent inhibition effect on NO production were selected through comparisons within the same genera. Moreover, the selected strains, including Leuconostoc mesenteroides MG860, Leu. citreum MG210, Pediococcus acidilactici MG5001, P. pentosaceus MG5078, Weissella cibaria MG5090, Levilactobacillus brevis MG5306, Latilactobacillus curvatus MG5020, and Latilactobacillus sakei MG5048 diminished the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)/cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. In addition, the stability and adhesion ability of the eight LAB strains in the gastrointestinal tract were determined. In conclusion, the selected strains have potential as new probiotics with antioxidant effects.


Fermentation ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 28
Author(s):  
Khairina Jaman ◽  
Nurjannah Amir ◽  
Mohammed Ali Musa ◽  
Afifi Zainal ◽  
Liyana Yahya ◽  
...  

Valorization of agro-food waste through anaerobic digestion (AD) is gaining prominence as alternative method of waste minimization and renewable energy production. The aim of this study was to identify the key parameters for digester performance subjected to kinetic study and semicontinuous operation. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were conducted in two different operating conditions: without mixing (WM) and continuous mixing (CM). Three different substrates, including food waste (FW), chicken dung (CD), and codigestion of FW and CD (FWCD) were used. Further kinetic evaluation was performed to identify mixing’s effect on kinetic parameters and correlation of the kinetic parameters with digester performance (volatile solid removal (VS%) and specific methane production (SMP)). The four models applied were: modified Gompertz, logistic, first-order, and Monod. It was found that the CM mode revealed higher values of Rm and k as compared to the WM mode, and the trend was consistently observed in the modified Gompertz model. Nonetheless, the logistic model demonstrated good correlation of kinetic parameters with VS% and SMP. In the continuous systems, the optimum OLR was recorded at 4, 5, and 7 g VS/L/d for FW, CD, and FWCD respectively. Therefore, it was deduced that codigestion significantly improved digester performance. Electrical energy generation at the laboratory scale was 0.002, 0.003, and 0.006 kWh for the FW, CD, and FWCD substrates, respectively. Thus, projected electrical energy generation at the on-farm scale was 372 kWh, 382 kWh, and 518 kWh per day, respectively. Hence, the output could be used as a precursor for large-scale digester-system optimization.


Fermentation ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 24
Author(s):  
Zhi-Yuan Ma ◽  
Emilio Ungerfeld ◽  
Zhu Ouyang ◽  
Xiao-Ling Zhou ◽  
Xue-Feng Han ◽  
...  

Sweet corn is a feed resource with a high content of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) available for ruminant production. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of inoculation with Lactobacillus plantarum on fermentation and nutritional quality of sweet corn silage. Sweet corn whole plant (WP) and sweet corn stover (CS) were ensiled in mini silos with or without inoculation of L. plantarum. Proximate composition and fermentation variables, and composition of the bacterial community, were evaluated before ensiling and at the end of the first, second, and third month after ensiling. There was fiber degradation in CS silage after three months of ensilage, but not in WP silage. Inoculation of WP silage, but not of CS silage, with L. plantarum, increased starch content. The relative abundance of genus Lactobacillus was increased by inoculation with L. plantarum by 14.2% and 82.2% in WP and CS silage, respectively. Inoculation with L. plantarum was not necessary to achieve adequate fermentation of either WP or CS silage, as the abundance of native lactic acid bacteria in both materials seemed suitable for adequate fermentation. That said, increased starch content in WP resulting from inoculation with L. plantarum can increase the nutritive value of WP for ruminants.


Fermentation ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 23
Author(s):  
Karthick Murugan Palanisamy ◽  
Gaanty Pragas Maniam ◽  
Ahmad Ziad Sulaiman ◽  
Mohd Hasbi Ab. Rahim ◽  
Natanamurugaraj Govindan ◽  
...  

Biomass and lipid production by the marine centric diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana were characterized in media based on palm oil mill effluent (POME) as a source of key nutrients. The optimal medium comprised 20% by volume POME, 80 µM Na2SiO3, and 35 g NaCl L−1 in water at pH ~7.7. In 15-day batch cultures (16:8 h/h light–dark cycle; 200 µmol photons m−2 s−1, 26 ± 1 °C) bubbled continuously with air mixed with CO2 (2.5% by vol), the peak concentration of dry biomass was 869 ± 14 mg L−1 corresponding to a productivity of ~58 mg L−1 day−1. The neutral lipid content of the biomass was 46.2 ± 1.1% by dry weight. The main components of the esterified lipids were palmitoleic acid methyl ester (31.6% w/w) and myristic acid methyl ester (16.8% w/w). The final biomass concentration and the lipid content were affected by the light–dark cycle. Continuous (24 h light) illumination at the above-specified irradiance reduced biomass productivity to ~54 mg L−1 day−1 and lipid content to 38.1%.


Fermentation ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 27
Author(s):  
Pilar Santamaría ◽  
Lucía González-Arenzana ◽  
Rocío Escribano-Viana ◽  
Patrocinio Garijo ◽  
Rosa López ◽  
...  

The aim of the work was to study the vinification by carbonic maceration carried out in small volume tanks, because the use of these deposits is necessary in scientific studies where repetitions are mandatory. For this, vinifications were carried out in 300-kg tanks with grapes of the Tempranillo variety. We studied the development of the alcoholic and malolactic fermentations and the microorganisms responsible for them. The results showed an alteration of the wines as a result of the low levels of yeast and the huge bacteria population. This was probably due to the difficulty in maintaining the necessary temperature and anaerobic conditions in the small tanks employed.


Fermentation ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 26
Author(s):  
Aline Kövilein ◽  
Vera Aschmann ◽  
Silja Hohmann ◽  
Katrin Ochsenreither

Whole-cell immobilization by entrapment in natural polymers can be a tool for morphological control and facilitate biomass retention. In this study, the possibility of immobilizing the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae for l-malic acid production was evaluated with the two carbon sources acetate and glucose. A. oryzae conidia were entrapped in alginate, agar, and κ-carrageenan and production was monitored in batch processes in shake flasks and 2.5-L bioreactors. With glucose, the malic acid concentration after 144 h of cultivation using immobilized particles was mostly similar to the control with free biomass. In acetate medium, production with immobilized conidia of A. oryzae in shake flasks was delayed and titers were generally lower compared to cultures with free mycelium. While all immobilization matrices were stable in glucose medium, disintegration of bead material and biomass detachment in acetate medium was observed in later stages of the fermentation. Still, immobilization proved advantageous in bioreactor cultivations with acetate and resulted in increased malic acid titers. This study is the first to evaluate immobilization of A. oryzae for malic acid production and describes the potential but also challenges regarding the application of different matrices in glucose and acetate media.


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