bacteria and fungi
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
S. Masood ◽  
A. Hussain ◽  
A. Javid ◽  
S. M. Bukahri ◽  
W. Ali ◽  

Abstract Poultry industry is expanding rapidly and producing million tons of feather waste annually. Massive production of keratinaceous byproducts in the form of industrial wastes throughout the world necessitates its justified utilization. Chemical treatment of keratin waste is proclaimed as an eco-destructive approach by various researchers since it generates secondary pollutants. Keratinase released by a variety of microbes (bacteria and fungi) can be used for the effective treatment of keratin waste. Microbial degradation of keratin waste is an emerging and eco-friendly approach and offers dual benefits, i.e., treatment of recalcitrant pollutant (keratin) and procurement of a commercially important enzyme (keratinase). This study involves the isolation, characterization, and potential utility of fungal species for the degradation of chicken-feather waste through submerged and solid-state fermentation. The isolated fungus was identified and characterized as Aspergillus (A.) flavus. In a trial of 30 days, it was appeared that 74 and 8% feather weight was reduced through sub-merged and solid-state fermentation, respectively by A. flavus. The pH of the growth media in submerged fermentation was changed from 4.8 to 8.35. The exploited application of keratinolytic microbes is, therefore, recommended for the treatment of keratinaceous wastes to achieve dual benefits of remediation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 42-46
A. Mahdia ◽  
P. A. Safitri ◽  
R. F. Setiarini ◽  
V. F. A. Maherani ◽  
M. N. Ahsani ◽  

Sanitation of the cage usually requires a sanitizer containing a powerful cleaning fluid to sterilize the cage. Materials commonly used for cage sanitation are detergent or disinfectants used to eradicate pathogenic microorganisms that cause bacteria, fungi, or other microorganisms. Eco enzyme is an alternative natural cleaning agent derived from fresh fruit waste through fermentation. This study aimed to make eco enzymes for cleaning chicken coops from citrus waste, characterize the microbiological eco enzymes, and test the effectiveness of eco enzymes as chicken coop cleaners. Eco enzymes from fresh citrus waste after a 3-month fermentation period contained bacteria and fungi of 1.9 x 106CFU/ml and 8.5 x 105CFU/ml, respectively, with a pH of 3.39±0.023. The eco enzyme of cage cleaning fluid from citrus waste (Citrus sp.) can inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus through confrontation tests in the laboratory. Testing the effectiveness of eco enzymes in chicken coops can reduce the number of bacteria five times more than detergents for the same area.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 128-134
Pham Ngoc Dong ◽  
Nguyen Thi Nga Duong ◽  
Mai Thi Lien ◽  
Angela C. Chen ◽  

AIM: To report the etiologies, risk factors, treatments, and outcomes of infectious keratitis (IK) at a major Vietnamese eye hospital. METHODS: This is a retrospective review of all cases of IK at Vietnam National Eye Hospital (VNEH) in Hanoi, Vietnam. Medical histories, demographics, clinical features, microbiological results, and treatment outcomes were reviewed. RESULTS: IK was diagnosed in 1974 eyes of 1952 patients, with ocular trauma being the greatest risk factor for IK (34.2%), frequently resulting from an agriculture-related injury (53.3%). The mean duration between symptom onset and presentation to VNEH was 19.3±14.4d, and 98.7% of patients had been treated with topical antibiotic and/or antifungal agents prior to evaluation at VNEH. Based on smear results of 1706 samples, the most common organisms identified were bacteria (n=1107, 64.9%) and fungi (n=1092, 64.0%), with identification of both bacteria and fungi in 614 (36.0%) eyes. Fifty-five of 374 bacterial cultures (14.7%) and 426 of 838 fungal cultures (50.8%) were positive, with the most commonly cultured pathogens being Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumonia, Fusarium spp., and Aspergillus spp. Corneal perforation and descemetocele developed in 391 (19.8%) and 93 (4.7%) eyes, respectively. Medical treatment was successful in resolving IK in 50.4% eyes, while 337 (17.1%) eyes underwent penetrating or anterior lamellar keratoplasty. Evisceration was performed in 7.1% of eyes, most commonly in the setting of fungal keratitis. CONCLUSION: Ocular trauma is a major risk factor for IK in Vietnam, which is diagnosed in almost 400 patients each year at VNEH. Given this, and as approximately one quarter of the eyes that develop IK require corneal transplantation or evisceration, greater emphasis should be placed on the development of prevention and treatment programs for IK in Vietnam.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 661
Patryk Jędrzejczak ◽  
Łukasz Ławniczak ◽  
Agnieszka Ślosarczyk ◽  
Łukasz Klapiszewski

In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to the durability of building materials, including those based on cementitious binders. Important aspects of durability include the increase of the strength of the cement matrix and enhancement of material resistance to external factors. The use of nanoadditives may be a way to meet these expectations. In the present study, zinc, titanium and copper oxides, used in single and binary systems (to better the effect of their performance), were applied as additives in cement mortars. In the first part of this work, an extensive physicochemical analysis of oxides was carried out, and in the second, their application ranges in cement mortars were determined. The subsequent analyses were employed in determining the physicochemical properties of pristine oxides: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), measurement of the particle size distribution, as well as zeta potential measurement depending on the pH values. Influence on selected physicomechanical parameters of the cement matrix and resistance to the action of selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi were also examined. Our work indicated that all nanoadditives worsened the mechanical parameters of mortars during the first 3 days of hardening, while after 28 days, an improvement was achieved for zinc and titanium(IV) oxides. Binary systems and copper(II) oxide deteriorated in strength parameters throughout the test period. In contrast, copper(II) oxide showed the best antibacterial activity among all the tested oxide systems. Based on the inhibitory effect of the studied compounds, the following order of microbial susceptibility to inhibition of growth on cement mortars was established (from the most susceptible, to the most resistant): E. coli < S. aureus < C. albicans < B. cereus = P. aeruginosa < P. putida.

Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 113
Jason L. Brown ◽  
Tracy Young ◽  
Emily McKloud ◽  
Mark C. Butcher ◽  
David Bradshaw ◽  

Denture stomatitis (DS) is an inflammatory disease resulting from a polymicrobial biofilm perturbation at the denture surface–palatal mucosa interface. Recommendations made by dental health care professionals often lack clarity for appropriate denture cleaning. This study investigated the efficacy of brushing with off-the-shelf denture cleanser (DC) tablets (Poligrip®) vs. two toothpastes (Colgate® and Crest®) in alleviating the viable microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) in an in vitro denture biofilm model. Biofilms were grown on poly(methyl)methacrylate (PMMA) discs, then treated daily for 7 days with mechanical disruption (brushing), plus Poligrip® DC, Colgate® or Crest® toothpastes. Weekly treatment with Poligrip® DC on day 7 only was compared to daily modalities. All treatment parameters were processed to determine viable colony forming units for bacteria and fungi using the Miles and Misra technique, and imaged by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Brushing with daily DC therapy was the most effective treatment in reducing the viable biofilm over 7 days of treatment. Brushing only was ineffective in controlling the viable bioburden, which was confirmed by CLSM imaging. This data indicates that regular cleansing of PMMA with DC was best for polymicrobial biofilms.

2022 ◽  
Man In Lam ◽  
Kinga Vojnits ◽  
Michael Zhao ◽  
Sepideh Pakpour ◽  
Piers Macnaughton

Built environments play a key role in the transmission of infectious diseases. Ventilation rates, air temperature and humidity affect airborne transmission while cleaning protocols, material properties and light exposure can influence viability of pathogens on surfaces. We investigated how indoor daylight intensity and spectrum through electrochromic (EC) windows can impact the growth rate and viability of indoor pathogens on different surface materials (polyvinyl chloride (PVC) fabric, polystyrene (PS), and glass) compared to traditional blinds. Our results showed that tinted EC windows let in higher energy, shorter wavelength daylight than those with clear window and blind. The growth rates of pathogenic bacteria and fungi were significantly lower in spaces with EC windows compared to blinds: nearly 100% growth rate reduction was observed when EC windows were in their clear state followed by 41-100% reduction in bacterial growth rate and 26-42% reduction in fungal growth rate when EC windows were in their darkest tint. Moreover, bacterial viabilities were significantly lower on PVC fabric when they were exposed to indoor light at EC-tinted window. These findings are deemed fundamental to the design of healthy modern buildings, especially those that encompass sick and vulnerable individuals.

Toxins ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 58
Jonas Krämer ◽  
Tim Lüddecke ◽  
Michael Marner ◽  
Elena Maiworm ◽  
Johanna Eichberg ◽  

Linear cationic venom peptides are antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that exert their effects by damaging cell membranes. These peptides can be highly specific, and for some, a significant therapeutic value was proposed, in particular for treatment of bacterial infections. A prolific source of novel AMPs are arthropod venoms, especially those of hitherto neglected groups such as pseudoscorpions. In this study, we describe for the first time pharmacological effects of AMPs discovered in pseudoscorpion venom. We examined the antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and insecticidal activity of full-length Checacin1, a major component of the Chelifer cancroides venom, and three truncated forms of this peptide. The antimicrobial tests revealed a potent inhibitory activity of Checacin1 against several bacteria and fungi, including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and even Gram-negative pathogens. All peptides reduced survival rates of aphids, with Checacin1 and the C-terminally truncated Checacin11−21 exhibiting effects comparable to Spinosad, a commercially used pesticide. Cytotoxic effects on mammalian cells were observed mainly for the full-length Checacin1. All tested peptides might be potential candidates for developing lead structures for aphid pest treatment. However, as these peptides were not yet tested on other insects, aphid specificity has not been proven. The N- and C-terminal fragments of Checacin1 are less potent against aphids but exhibit no cytotoxicity on mammalian cells at the tested concentration of 100 µM.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Dong Yan ◽  
Tao Zhang ◽  
Jing-Lin Bai ◽  
Jing Su ◽  
Li-Li Zhao ◽  

Particulate matter (PM) has been a threat to the environment and public health in the metropolises of developing industrial countries such as Beijing. The microorganisms associated with PM have an impact on human health if they are exposed to the respiratory tract persistently. There are few reports on the microbial resources collected from PM and their antimicrobial activities. In this study, we greatly expanded the diversity of available commensal organisms by collecting 1,258 bacterial and 456 fungal isolates from 63 PM samples. A total of 77 bacterial genera and 35 fungal genera were included in our pure cultures, with Bacillus as the most prevalent cultured bacterial genus, Aspergillus, and Penicillium as the most prevalent fungal ones. During heavy-haze days, the numbers of colony-forming units (CFUs) and isolates of bacteria and fungi were decreased. Bacillus, Paenibacillus, and Chaetomium were found to be enriched during haze days, while Kocuria, Microbacterium, and Penicillium were found to be enriched during non-haze days. Antimicrobial activity against common pathogens have been found in 40 bacterial representatives and 1 fungal representative. The collection of airborne strains will provide a basis to greatly increase our understanding of the relationship between bacteria and fungi associated with PM and human health.

Nanomedicine ◽  
2022 ◽  
Jiří Trousil ◽  
Jana Matějková ◽  
You-Shan Dai ◽  
Tomáš Urbánek ◽  
Miroslav Šlouf ◽  

Background: Antimicrobial submicrometer particles are being studied as promising interventions against a wide range of skin conditions, such as fungal or bacterial infections. Aims: To submicronize chloroxine, the crystalline compound 5,7-dichloro-8-hydroxyquinoline, by nanoprecipitation and characterize the resulting assemblies. Methods: The chloroxine particles were stabilized by a nonionic surfactant and were studied by a broth microdilution assay against 20 medically important bacteria and fungi. The intervention was studied using a murine model of skin irritation. Results & conclusions: Chloroxine nanoparticles with a diameter of 600–800 nm exhibit good tolerability in terms of skin irritation in vivo and good antimicrobial activity. Thus, the fabricated formulation shows great promise for interventions for both cutaneous infection control and prophylaxis.

O. V. Salishcheva ◽  
A. Yu. Prosekov ◽  
N. E. Moldagulova ◽  
V. M. Pugachev

The study aims to synthesize and examine the biological activity of mono- and binuclear platinum (II) and palladium (II) complexes containing terminal and bridging nitrite ligands against the test cultures of Bacillus subtilis B4647, Aspergillus brasiliensis (niger) F679, Pseudomonas aeruginosa B8243, and Escherichia coli. Through the interaction of mononuclear platinum (II) and palladium (II) complexes, dimeric complexes having nitrite ligands were synthesized. The composition and structure of these complexes were established using elemental analysis, conductometry, potentiometry, cryoscopy, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, and X-ray fluorescence analysis. A way to coordinate nitrite ligands with the central atom was established. Antimicrobial and antifungal properties were evaluated according to the capability of the synthesized complexes to inhibit the activity of bacteria and fungi via diffusion in agar and in vitro dilution. The minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations of the complexes suppressing the visible growth of microorganisms and fungi, as well as exhibiting their bactericidal effect, ranged from 62.5–125 μmol/dm3. The obtained results revealed a high activity of the palladium (II) binuclear complex of the non-electrolytic type and the platinum (II) binuclear complex of the cationic type. Unlike mononuclear complexes, palladium and platinum binuclear complexes demonstrate higher antibacterial activity. Antibacterial effectiveness exhibited by the palladium complex of the non-electrolytic type against bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli, as well as fungi Aspergillus niger, is more pronounced. The only exception is the antimicrobial activity of the palladium complex against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is comparable to that of the binuclear platinum complex of the cationic type. By changing the structure of the complex, the composition and charge of the inner sphere, the number of coordination centers, as well as the nature and denticity of ligands, it is possible to achieve a higher toxic effect of the complexes against bacteria and fungi.

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