Chi Square
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2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
IMELDA LAMBERTINI BILI
Keyword(s):  

Wuhan, ibu kota Provinsi Hubei di China tengah, adalah provinsi ketujuh terbesar di negara itu dengan populasi 11 juta orang. Pada awal Desember 2019 seorang pasien didiagnosis menderita pneumonia yang tidak biasa.Pada 31 Desember, kantor regional Organisasi Kesehatan Dunia (WHO) di Beijing telah menerima pemberitahuan tentang sekelompok pasien dengan pneumonia yang tidak diketahui penyebabnya dari kota yang sama.karakteristik,pengetahuan,sikap dan keterampilan,sedangkan independen adalah perilaku pencegahan penularan Covid-19.Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan cara membagikan kuesioner baik online berbasis google form maupun offline (secara langsung). Pengolahan data pada penelitian ini mencakup editing, coding dan entry data. Analisis data yang digunakan terdiri dari analisis univariat menggunakan persentase dan bivariat menggunakan uji Chi-Square. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian diatas, dapat disimpulkan bahwa ada hubungan antara jenis kelamin, pendidikan, pekerjaan, pengetahuan, sikap dan keterampilan dengan perilaku pencegahan penularan Covid-19.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Shan Tan ◽  
Shizhou Li ◽  
Jianxiang Dong ◽  
Hongmei Dai ◽  
Minghua Yang ◽  
...  

Abstract Background and objectives Vaccine is the most essential avenue to prevent hepatitis B infection in infants and preschool children in China, with the largest populations carrying hepatitis B virus in the world. This study aimed to evaluate the factors affecting the response level of anti-HBs in children, with a view to provide instructions for hepatitis B prevention clinically. MethodsThe children taking physical examinations in the Third Xiangya Hospital from January 2013 to April 2020 were recruited. Telephone follow-up were adopted to collect further information. Univariate logistic regression was used to analyse the relationship between age and anti-HBs expression. After grouping by age and anti-HBs expression, we used chi-square test and T test to compare the difference between positive and negative antibody expression in each age subgroup. The meaningful variables (P<0.10) in chi-square test and T test were assessed with collinearity and chosen for univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis by the stepwise backward maximum likelihood method (αin=0.05, αout=0.10).ResultsA total of 5838 samples (3362 males, 57.6%) were enrolled. The outcomes showed that the expression of anti-HBs was associated with age [OR=1.037(1.022-1.051)] in whole sample. Anemia[OR=0.392(0.185-0.835)], age[OR=2.542(1.961-3.295)] and Vit D[OR=0.977(0.969-0.984)] in 0.5-2.99 years subgroup, Zinc deficiency[OR=0.713(0.551-0.923] and age[OR=1.151(1.028-1.289)] in 3-5.99 years subgroup, Vit D[OR=0.983(0.971-0.995)] in 12-18 years subgroup had significant effect on the expression of anti-HBs. Conclusions This retrospective study illustrated that age, anaemia status, zinc deficiency and vitamin D were associated with the expression of anti-HBs in different age groups children, which could serve as a reference for the prevention of hepatitis.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Mercy Wendy Wanyana

Abstract Background: Health inequalities in unmet need for family planning have been documented in Uganda, however, little is known about their magnitude and whether these have remained the same. Objective This study sought to examine health inequalities in unmet need for family planning among Ugandan women between 15-49 years of age in the years 2014 to 2018. Methods: Five data sets of the Performance Monitoring Accountability 2020 family planning cross-sectional surveys were used to assess health inequalities in unmet need for family planning across four socio-economic position variables (age, education, wealth status and geographical location) at five time points (2014 to 2018).Chi-square (χ 2 ) test and a logistic regression-based measure, the Relative Index of Inequality (RII) were used to assess differences and relative health inequalities respectively. Results: The data of 19,670 women aged 15 to 49 years were analysed. Between 2014 and 2018, unmet need for family planning (limiting, spacing and total) were 2 or more times more prevalent among the uneducated (RII value range:1.94 to 2.73), and poorest women(RII value range:1.90 to 3.78), in comparison with women with post-secondary education and richest women respectively. Unmet need for family planning was more prevalent among women older than 35 years (RII between 0.41 and 0.63). No geographic-related health inequalities were observed. Education-related inequalities reduced, wealth-related health inequalities increased, while age-related inequalities remained fairly consistent. Conclusion: Age, education and wealth related health inequalities were observed in unmet need for family planning. The magnitude of health inequalities varied between 2014 and 2018, with largest inequalities based on wealth status variable.


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Eshetu Temesgen ◽  
Yerega Belete ◽  
Kibrom Haile ◽  
Solomon Ali

Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB) is an airborne chronic infectious disease mainly caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex bacteria. Currently, about 1.7 billion (26%) of the world’s population are considered to be infected with M. tuberculosis. The risk of acquiring tuberculosis is higher on some segments of societies including people with severe mental illness. As a result, World health organization (WHO) strongly recommends screening for tuberculosis in such risk groups and setting. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of active tuberculosis and associated factors among patients with chronic psychotic disorders admitted at St. Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital and Gergesenon Mental rehabilitation center from February to June, 2020. All admitted patients were screened for any sign of TB as recommended by WHO. Presumptive TB cases were identified. Sputum samples were collected and tested by Xpert MTB/RIF assay. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 25.0 statistical software and Chi square analysis was used to test the statistical association. Results From a total 3600 pschotic patients screened for TB, 250 (6.94%) presumptive tuberculosis cases were detected. From these, 27 (10.8%) were positive by Xpert MTB/RIF assay. Most of the patients were males (68.4%). The mean ± SD age of the participant was 36.5 ± 9.7 years. The overall prevalence of tuberculosis was found to be 750 per 100,000 population. The number of patients per room (p = 0.039) was associated with Xpert MTB/RIF positive active tuberculosis. Conclusion The prevalence of active tuberculosis among chronic psychotic patients was high. Number of admitted patients per room was identified as risk factors for Xpert MTB/RIF positive active tuberculosis. Therefore, to control TB transmission in chronic mental health treatment facilities, efforts should be directed to periodic screening for early case detection and improving the number of patients per room.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Pasquale Gallina ◽  
Berardino Porfirio

We analyzed the files regarding the competitions won by 186 professors of selected bibliometric disciplines in Florence between January 2014 and 30 June 2021. An equal number of professors recruited at other Italian universities and of researchers who never attained professorship in Italy were randomly chosen among individuals possessing National Scientific Qualification, a prerequisite for professorship, in the same disciplines of each Florentine professor. The H-indexes at the time of qualification (T1), of the Florence call (T2), and the current (T3) time were obtained from Scopus. Non-recruited researchers were more likely (Chi-square test) to show a higher H-index than both Florentine (T1 p=0.0005, T2 p=0.0015, T3 p=0.0095) and non-Florentine professors (T1 p=0.0078, T2 p=0.0245, T3 p=0.0500). Fifty-four non-recruited scientists serve in foreign universities, 100 at national/international research centers. The remaining 32 scientists (25 who keep producing despite precarious employment, and 7 who have stopped publishing) were, at any rate, as likely as Florentine (T3 p=0.69) and non-Florentine professors (T3 p=0.14) to show a higher H-index. This study suggests that Italian academy does not recruit professors according to their qualitative/quantitative capacity of publishing, with a detriment to knowledge for the countrywide system and on a global scale.


F1000Research ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. 1086
Author(s):  
Kiran Kishor Nakarmi ◽  
Bishnu Deep Pathak ◽  
Dhan Shrestha ◽  
Pravash Budhathoki ◽  
Shankar Man Rai

Background: Scald burns result from exposure to high-temperature fluids and are more common in the pediatric age group. They occur mainly by two mechanisms: (i) spill and (ii) immersion (hot cauldron) burns. These two patterns differ in clinical characteristics and outcomes. Scalds cause significant morbidity and mortality in children. The objective of this study was to compare accidental spill burns and hot cauldron burns in a hospital setting. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted by reviewing the secondary data of scald cases admitted during the years 2019 and 2020 in a burn-dedicated tertiary care center. Total population sampling was adopted. Data analysis was done partly using SPSS, version-23, and Stata-15. Mann Whitney U-test and Chi-square/Fisher's exact test were done appropriately to find associations between different variables. Regression analysis was performed taking mortality events as the outcome of interest. Results: Out of 108 scald cases, 43 (39.8%) had hot cauldron burns and 65 (60.2%) had accidental spill burns. Overall mortality was 16 (14.8%), out of which hot cauldron burns and accidental spill burns comprised 12 (75.0%) and 4 (25.0%), respectively. Multinomial logistic regression analysis showed the type of scald, age, and Baux score found to be associated with mortality. Every one-year increment in age had a 29% lower odds of occurrence of mortality event (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.50-0.99, p=0.042). Likewise, every one-point increment in Baux score was associated with 19% higher odds of mortality (adjusted OR, 1.190; 95% CI, 1.08-1.32; p<0.001). Conclusions: Accidental spill burns were more common but mortality was significantly higher for hot cauldron burns. The majority of burn injuries occurred inside the kitchen emphasizing appropriate parental precautions. The risk of mortality was significantly higher in burn events occurring outside the house, and burns involving back, buttocks, perineum, and lower extremities.


Author(s):  
Emmanuel Ilesanmi Adeyeye ◽  
Olatoye Rauf Abioye

An investigation into the vitamins composition levels in Clariasgariepinus fish was carried out and reported in dry extract/fresh; dry extract / smoked-dried on individual vitamins and the sum of the whole vitamins. Parts investigated were liver, muscle and head. Whereas fresh and smoked-dried data were laboratory results, the dry extract portions were calculated and reported as dry extract /fresh sample, dry extract / smoked-dried sample for liver, muscle and head. Results obtained ran thus and all values were in mg/100g vitamin where d = difference, CV% = coefficient of variation and % difference = % value that shows what made dry extract value greater than its reported comparison: dry extract/fresh, % d = 74.5 (all), CV% = 84.0 (all), in liver; dry extract/smoked, % d =24.5 (all), CV% = 19.7 (all), in liver; dry extract/fresh, % d = 74.3 (all), CV% = 83.6 (all), in muscle; ndry extract/smoked, % d = 10.2 (all), CV% =7.60 (all), in muscle;m dry extract/fresh, % d = 68.5 (all), CV% = 73.7 (all), in head; dry extract/smoked, % d = 9.10 (all), CV% = 6.74 (all), in head; dry extract/fresh, % d = 71.9- 74.5, CV% = 79.4 - 82.4 in total vitamin body load; dry extract/smoked, % d = 9. 69- 24.5, CV% = 7.20 - 19.7 in total vitamin body load; dry extract (fresh) – dry extract (smoked), %d = 69.6 - 82.0 in liver; dry extract (fresh) – dry extract (smoked), %d = 72.3 - 76.3 in muscle; dry extract (fresh) – dry extract (smoked), %d = 62.9 - 75.2 in head; dry extract (fresh) – dry extract (smoked), %d = 69.7- 79.0 in total vitamins body load.Among the dry extract values calculated from fresh samples and subjected to chi-square (χ2) values, significant values were observed in vitamins B6, C, A, B1, D, E and total at α=0.05. In the dry extract values from smoked samples, only three significant χ2 values in vitamins A, E and total were observed. In reflection to vitamin concentration levels, percentage higher levels in dry extracts (from fresh) had these trends: liver (74.5%) > muscle (74.3%) > head (68.5%) whereas from smoked, we had liver (24.5%) > muscle (10.2%) > head (9.10%). Also total vitamin body load from dry extract (fresh) was 71.9-74.5% difference and dry extract (smoked) was 9.69 -24.5% difference. It should be noted that liver occupied the higher part of the range in the two comparisons, like 74.5% (fresh) and 24.5% (smoked).


Author(s):  
Manuel Herrador-Colmenero ◽  
Cristina Cadenas-Sanchez ◽  
Idoia Labayen ◽  
Adrià Muntaner-Mas ◽  
Diego Moliner-Urdiales ◽  
...  

The aims of this study were to describe patterns of active commuting to school (ACS) of preschool children, and to analyse the relationship between ACS and family socio-economic factors. A total of 2636 families of preschoolers (3-to-5 years old) were asked to complete a questionnaire at home about the mode of commuting to school of their children and marital status, educational level, and profession of both father and mother. Chi-square analyses were applied to compare ACS between school grades and gender of the children. To analyse the association of ACS with socio-economic factors, logistic regression analyses were performed. Almost 50% of participants reported ACS of their offspring, with a higher rate in 3rd preprimary grade (5 years old) than in 1st and 2nd preprimary grades (3- and 4-years old. All, p < 0.05). Those preschool children who had parents with lower educational level and no managerial work had higher odds to ACS than those who had parents with higher educational level and managerial work (all, p ≤ 0.001). Around half of the Spanish preschool children included in this study commuted actively to school and families with lower educational levels or worse employment situation were related to active commuting to school.


2021 ◽  
pp. 1-16
Author(s):  
Admir Barolli ◽  
Kevin Bylykbashi ◽  
Ermioni Qafzezi ◽  
Shinji Sakamoto ◽  
Leonard Barolli ◽  
...  

Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) are gaining a lot of attention from researchers due to their advantages such as easy maintenance, low upfront cost and high robustness. Connectivity and stability directly affect the performance of WMNs. However, WMNs have some problems such as node placement problem, hidden terminal problem and so on. In our previous work, we implemented a simulation system to solve the node placement problem in WMNs considering Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Distributed Genetic Algorithm (DGA), called WMN-PSODGA. In this paper, we compare chi-square and uniform distributions of mesh clients for different router replacement methods. The router replacement methods considered are Constriction Method (CM), Random Inertia Weight Method (RIWM), Linearly Decreasing Inertia Weight Method (LDIWM), Linearly Decreasing Vmax Method (LDVM) and Rational Decrement of Vmax Method (RDVM). The simulation results show that for chi-square distribution the mesh routers cover all mesh clients for all router replacement methods. In terms of load balancing, the method that achieves the best performance is RDVM. When using the uniform distribution, the mesh routers do not cover all mesh clients, but this distribution shows good load balancing for four router replacement methods, with RIWM showing the best performance. The only method that shows poor performance for this distribution is LDIWM. However, since not all mesh clients are covered when using uniform distribution, the best scenario is chi-square distribution of mesh clients with RDVM as a router replacement method.


Author(s):  
S.M. Chikkabyrappa ◽  
N. Chaudhary ◽  
A. Agarwal ◽  
D. Rastogi ◽  
P. Filipov ◽  
...  

BACKGROUND: There remains controversy regarding the outcomes resulting from treatment versus conservative management of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) among preterm infants. The effects of extreme prematurity, hemodynamic status of the PDA, and age at treatment remain poorly defined. STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective case-control study including infants <  1250 gm who were categorized into 3 groups: Group 1: without PDA, Group 2: with untreated PDA, and Group 3: treated PDA. Diagnosis and treatment of PDA extracted from the medical records. Demographics, clinical characteristics, and outcomes compared using chi-square and analysis of variance. Logistic regression used to estimate adjusted odds ratios. RESULTS: The study included 734 infants, with 141(19%) in Group 1, 329 (45%) in 2, and 264 (36%) in 3. Group 3 had higher incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) (aOR, 2.9; 95%CI 1.7–4.8). Infant treated for hemodynamically significant PDA (HSPDA) had higher incidence of BPD (aOR, 1.9; 95%CI 1.0–3.8) and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) (aOR, 3.4; 95%CI 1.6–6.9). There were no differences in outcome associated with treatment among≤26 weeks gestation and the age when treated. CONCLUSION: Infants with PDA who were treated had higher incidence of BPD. Among those who were treated, those with HSPDA had a higher incidence of BPD and ROP.


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