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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 451-464
Michael Segun Ogunmuyiwa

Sales promotion and publicity are key promotional marketing tools which have assisted organizations to wax stronger in a global competitive environment. This study investigates the significance of publicity and sales promotion in Nigeria. The research design adopted for this study is survey research design while the sampling technique adopted is simple random sampling technique The Chi-square method is used to test the hypothesis based on the responses from the five-point Likert rating scale of the structured questionnaire. The findings reveal that publicity and sales promotion are veritable tools for achieving organizational marketing goals in a competitive marketing environment. It is recommended that publicity and sales promotion should be well utilized to stimulate customers demand, boost organizational reputation without detriment to product quality and performance. JEL Codes: M31, M37 Keywords: publicity, sales promotion, digital marketing era, promotion mix, marketing tools, marketing performance

2022 ◽  
Vol 1 (3) ◽  
pp. 1-7
Dr. Smitha Sambrani ◽  

Massive open online courses (MOOCs) is created greater prominence as a modern learning system mainly due to the advanced progress made in the area of Learning and Teaching Technology and. Covid pandemic also had open opportunities for Online Learning Platforms. Present study has focused on learners’ experience with various MOOCs platforms through online reviews and ratings, which were collected from Google play store and appbot application. Seven MOOCs platforms namely Coursera, edX, Udemy, Swayam, LinkedIn , Khan Academy and Upgrad are reviewed in this paper. The main objective is to compare the select MOOCs platforms in the area of users’ experience. Total number of reviews and rating has been taken for the study is 63, 652. The time frame of sample data was taken for last one year that is from 5th April, 2020 to 5th April, 2021. Sentiment analysis and chi-square test is applied to analyze the difference among the different MOOCs platforms. The major outcomes were the reviews and ratings of different platform found with very good uses experience.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 027-037
Ahmed Mousa Elgadi ◽  
Ahmed Hijazi Mahmoud ◽  
Azeldin fouzi Alabidi ◽  
Zinab Ali Albarghathi ◽  
Nouha Elmabrouk Mohammed ◽  

Introduction: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are most prescribed medication classes and have similar efficacy between generic and brand names. PPIs are used for treatment upper GIT disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Methods: A cross sectional study conducted randomly on pharmacies, patients and Doctors to collect a data regarding the effectiveness and safely use of PPI through predesigned questionnaire containing information about dosage, types, side effect, effectiveness and safety of PPIs. The collected data was analysis by using Chi-square for determine the significant differences at α < 0.05. Result: The result of present study revealed numbers of points in which the questionnaire were intended for pharmacies, patients and doctors knowledge, effectiveness and safety of PPIs. The data gathered from pharmacy shown PPI dispensed without prescription (P< 0.05) in dose of 20 mg of omeprazole and for treatment of gastritis, stomachache and on medication use (P< 0.05). No side effect or any problem, safe, and effective of PPIs was from patients seeking PPIs to the drug dispensers. Furthermore, questionnaire for patients whom seeking treatment shown some similarity to pharmacies answers, however lack the knowledge about side effect of PPIs, and PPIs withdraw among patients. PPIs was found to be used by patients due to the advices of friends (P< 0.05). The last part in this study was doctors involved in which some common similarity were also identified between doctors, patients and pharmacies responses. Although, Doctors responses were revealed that PPIs should be used by prescription in single dose of common types of PPIs (P< 0.05). Conclusion: Due to the short time use of PPIs have been reported. This study suggested that, even no side effect and highly effective of PPIs reported, the PPIs should be monitoring and use under prescription.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Raffaele Zanchini ◽  
Simone Blanc ◽  
Liam Pippinato ◽  
Giuseppe Di Vita ◽  
Filippo Brun

PurposeAs is well known, there are several aspects that characterise honey consumption and the reasons for purchasing it. Despite this, little attention has been paid to the drivers that move consumers towards the use of honey for its health benefits and therapeutic properties. The aim of this study is to define which drivers move the consumption of honey for its health benefits.Design/methodology/approachThe study, conducted on 640 Italian honey consumers, applied inferential tests (Chi-square) and an econometric model (logit regression), and showed that about 66% of the respondents stated that they consume honey for its health properties.FindingsThe main drivers of honey consumption are both among the intrinsic (Colour) and extrinsic (Origin and Organic certification) attributes of the product. What also emerges is that the propensity to consume honey for health purposes is influenced by the consumer characteristics and habits, such as Age cohort, Gender, BMI and Large retail buyer. Moreover, we observed that consumption is influenced by BMI but not by lifestyle characteristics such as sport and diet.Originality/valueThis study could be a support tool for policymakers who are interested in promoting good nutrition and improving public health, since there is great interest in the functional properties of foods and the need to enhance the value of products, while at the same time ensuring consumer protection.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Saeed Mastour Alshahrani ◽  
Abdullah F. Alghannam ◽  
Nada Taha ◽  
Shurouq Saeed Alqahtani ◽  
Abrar Al-Mutairi ◽  

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a major impact on various health conditions. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on body weight and body mass index (BMI) in Saudi Arabia. We used electronic health records obtained from a healthcare system representing five hospitals in three different regions in the Kingdom to examine the change in weight utilizing a longitudinal design. The study included all adults who had visited outpatient clinics in two different time points, pre-2020 (years 2018 and 2019 prior to COVID-19) and post-2020 (the year 2021). Weight and BMI changes in percentages were described. Also, bivariate chi-square test, paired t-test, and multivariable multinomial logistic regression model were used for the analyses. A total of 165,279 individuals were included in the study. On average, a significant weight gain of 0.33 kg (95% CI: 0.29–0.36) was observed in our study. Approximately 10% of the population had shifted to either overweight or obese BMI classes during the study period, as 4.8% of those with normal BMI pre-2020 had shifted to overweight or obese classes at post-2020, and 5.1% of those who were overweight had shifted to obese class. Also, 23.1% of the population had gained 5% or more of their pre-2020 weight, while 17% had lost 5% or more. Young individuals were over three times more likely to gain 5% or more than older individuals (OR: 3.34; 95% CI: 3.12–3.56). Females had 24% higher odds to gain 5% or more of their pre-2020 weight than males (OR: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.21–1.27). Diabetics were 27% more likely to lose 5% or more than non-diabetics (OR: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.23–1.31). Our findings provide insights into the impact of COVID-19 on weight and population health. Further investment in interventions for weight management is warranted during similar circumstances such as lockdowns due to infection waves or new variants. Future studies are also needed to explore the modifications that have occurred during the pandemic in the weight-related lifestyle factors such as dietary choices and physical activity levels.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Rabia Ishaq ◽  
Maryam Shoaib ◽  
Nosheen Sikander Baloch ◽  
Abdul Sadiq ◽  
Abdul Raziq ◽  

BackgroundQuality of Life (QoL) and its determinants are significant in all stages of life, including pregnancy. The physical and emotional changes during pregnancy affect the QoL of pregnant women, affecting both maternal and infant health. Hence, assessing the QoL of pregnant women is gaining interest in literature. We, therefore, aimed to describe the QoL of pregnant women during physiological pregnancy and to identify its associated predictors in women attending a public healthcare institute of Quetta city, Pakistan.MethodsA cross-sectional study was conducted at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Sandeman Provincial Hospital Quetta city, Pakistan. The respondents were asked to answer the Urdu (lingua franca of Pakistan) version of the Quality of Life Questionnaire for Physiological Pregnancy. Data were coded and analyzed by SPPS v 21. The Kolmogorov–Smirnov test was used to establish normality of the data and non-parametric tests were used accordingly. Quality of Life was assessed as proposed by the developers. The Chi-square test was used to identify significant associations and linear regression was used to identify the predictors of QoL. For all analyses, p &lt; 0.05 was taken significantly.ResultsFour hundred and three pregnant women participated in the study with a response rate of 98%. The mean QoL score was 19.85 ± 4.89 indicating very good QoL in the current cohort. The Chi-Square analysis reported a significant association between age, education, occupation, income, marital status, and trimester. Education was reported as a positive predictor for QoL (p = 0.006, β = 2.157). On the other hand, trimester was reported as a negative predictor of QoL (p = 0.013, β = −1.123).ConclusionImproving the QoL among pregnant women requires better identification of their difficulties and guidance. The current study highlighted educational status and trimester as the predictors of QoL in pregnant women. Health care professionals and policymakers should consider the identified factors while designing therapeutic plans and interventions for pregnant women.

2022 ◽  
Vol 38 (3) ◽  
Liping Lu ◽  
Xuming Pan

Non-contrast MRI is used for identifying patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), especially among high-risk patients with cirrhosis or chronic viral hepatitis. The accuracy of non-contrast MRI has been investigated with varying results. We performed this meta-analysis to consolidate the evidence on the accuracy of non-contrast MRI for the detection of HCC. We conducted a systematic search in the databases of PubMed Central, SCOPUS, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane from inception till November 2020. We used the STATA software “Midas” package for meta-analysis. We included 15 studies with 3,756 patients. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of non-contrast MRI for HCC detection were 84% (95%CI, 78%-88%) and 94% (95%CI, 91%-97%). The positive likelihood ratio was 14.9 (95% CI, 9.0-24.7) and the negative one 0.17 (0.12-0.23). The overall quality of the studies was high. We found significant heterogeneity based on chi-square test results and I2 statistic > 75%. Deek’s test showed the absence of publication bias. We found that non-contrast MRI has high sensitivity and specificity as a tool for detecting HCC. Studies exploring its accuracy in different ethnic populations are required to strengthen the evidence. doi: How to cite this:Lu L, Pan X. Accuracy of Non-Contrast MRI for the Detection of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(3):---------. doi: This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

J Vini Mary Antony ◽  
Pratibha Ramani

The routine procedure to prepare a Pap smear is done by fixing the slides with 95% ethanol immediately after the sample is taken. This study was performed to determine the alternative method of air-drying and rehydration prior to alcohol fixation instead of conventional method. Paired buccal smears were collected from 50 patients who participated in the study. One set was labeled as (Wet fixed in 95% ethanol) WF and the other one Air-dried fixed (ARF) rehydrated and fixed with coconut oil. The staining quality of the slides was assessed with respect to nuclear details and cytoplasmic details, cytoplasmic staining and background staining. Single blinded study was done. The results were analyzed by Chi square test to compare the defined parameters between the two groups. Air-dried fixed (ARF) slides with coconut oil was significantly better with regard to clearance of background. There was statistically significant difference between the air dried smear rehydrated with coconut oil and normal wet fixed smear. So air dried smear rehydrated with coconut oil can be used as an alternative to wet fixed smear.

Waleed Abdualaziz Mohammad Dahag ◽  
Abdulwahab Ismail Mohamed Al-Kholani ◽  
Taghreed Ahmed M Al-Kibsi ◽  
Hussein Shoga Al-Deen ◽  
Hassan Abdulwahab Al-Shamahy ◽  

Introduction and objective: Mixed dentition space analysis methods via Tanaka-Johnston analysis are regularly used all over the world. Conversely, the appropriate of this analysis between different ethnic groups is dubious. The study aimed to test the appropriate of the Tanaka-Johnston analysis for Yemeni adults and to arise regression equations designed for Yemen population if needed.  Methods: The study included two hundred and twenty-seven (106 males and 121 females) Yemenis from Sana'a University, University of Science and Technology, and Al-Rehab Private Clinic. The mesiodistal widths of the four permanent lower canines, incisors, and premolars for the entire quadrants were determined with a digital caliper to the nearest 0.01 mm. To compare average presentation values ​​derived from this study with values ​​derived using Tanaka-Johnston equations, Student's paired t-test was used, as well as the chi-square (χ2) test used for appropriateness of fit. Result: Gender differences were observed in the total mesiodistal width of both canines and premolars in both arches as revealed by the t-test (p < 0.001). The sum of the actual mesiodistal width of the canines and premolars was compared with the expected widths derived from the Tanaka and Johnston equation and significant differences (p<0.001) were found. Regression analysis indicated that the sum of the mesiodistal width of the permanent mandibular incisors is a good predictor of that of un-erupted canines and premolars, with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.51 to 0.61. Accordingly, two linear regression equations were developed to predict tooth width for Yemeni males and females. Conclusion: It was concluded from this study that the Tanaka-Johnston analysis did not accurately predict the mesiodistal width of the unruptured canines and premolars of the Yemeni population. Moreover, new regression equations have been developed for the research sample that can be a standard for Yemen. However, further studies must be performed to verify the applicability and accuracy of these equations.                   Peer Review History: Received: 10 November 2021; Revised: 12 December; Accepted: 29 December, Available online: 15 January 2022 Academic Editor: Dr. Asia Selman Abdullah, Pharmacy institute, University of Basrah, Iraq, [email protected] UJPR follows the most transparent and toughest ‘Advanced OPEN peer review’ system. The identity of the authors and, reviewers will be known to each other. This transparent process will help to eradicate any possible malicious/purposeful interference by any person (publishing staff, reviewer, editor, author, etc) during peer review. As a result of this unique system, all reviewers will get their due recognition and respect, once their names are published in the papers. We expect that, by publishing peer review reports with published papers, will be helpful to many authors for drafting their article according to the specifications. Auhors will remove any error of their article and they will improve their article(s) according to the previous reports displayed with published article(s). The main purpose of it is ‘to improve the quality of a candidate manuscript’. Our reviewers check the ‘strength and weakness of a manuscript honestly’. There will increase in the perfection, and transparency.  Received file:                Reviewer's Comments: Average Peer review marks at initial stage: 6.5/10 Average Peer review marks at publication stage: 7.5/10 Reviewers: Dr. A.A. Mgbahurike, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria, [email protected] Rola Jadallah, Arab American University, Palestine, [email protected] Similar Articles: PREVALENCE AND CAUSES OF TRAUMATIC DENTAL INJURIES TO ANTERIOR TEETH AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN IN SANA'A CITY, YEMEN OCCLUSAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PRIMARY DENTITION AMONG A SAMPLE OF YEMENI PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN

Shweta Singh ◽  
Anil Singh ◽  
Kunal Sah ◽  
Manjery Singh

Identification of a person is of paramount importance in a medico-legal investigation. At present more and more people use protecting lipsticks and permanent lipsticks. With these lipsticks a latent lip print is generated by contact with a surface and, like with the latent fingerprints occur, this latent lip print can be developed. This study aims to retrieve latent lip prints from various inanimate surfaces like thermocoal plate, bone china, and glass to compare the efficacy of developers i.e., fingerprint powder, Sudan III, Vermillion, and its comparison with standard lipstick prints. Current research assesses the effectiveness of particular surfaces in the retrieval of lip print in personnel identification. This study included a total of 30 subjects. Latent lip print was developed on the different inanimate surfaces by pressing the lips against the different vehicles. After collecting samples, a camel hair brush was used to retrieve all three chemicals individually by simply tapping on all three surfaces. Application of chemicals was continued until the print became clearly visible for the study. Developed latent lip print was then compared with the visible lip print. Subsequently, a standard lipstick print was developed from the same subject. All the samples were coded and graded according to the patterns suggested in the literature. Discrete (categorical) data were summarized in number and percentage and compared by chi-square (χ2) test. Analyses were performed on SPSS software (Windows version 17.0).: The overall (i.e., total of all three surfaces) favourable outcome was found highest in Fingerprint powder (58.9%) followed by Sudan III (28.9%) and Vermilion (10.0%) the least (Vermilion &#60; Sudan III &#60; Fingerprint powder).Comparing the overall outcomes of three developers, χ2 test showed significantly different and higher favourable outcome in Fingerprint powder as compared to both Sudan III and Vermilion (χ2=92.09, p&#60;0.001) The study found Fingerprint powder the best developer and Thermocol plate the best surface. The findings of this study may be beneficial for investigators.

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