Chi Square
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2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Michele C. Lim ◽  
Sam Parsons ◽  
Alessia Goglio ◽  
Elaine Fox

Abstract Background Recent years have witnessed an increasing prevalence of binge eating tendencies in adolescence—warranting a clearer understanding of their underlying predisposing and precipitating factors. The current study investigated whether the interaction between high levels of anxiety and stress predicted increased levels of binge eating tendencies in a prospective cohort of adolescents (N = 324). Methods Measurements were taken over three waves (M ages: 13.33, 14.48, 15.65) as part of the CogBIAS Longitudinal Study. Longitudinal associations between levels of anxiety and stress with binge eating tendencies were estimated using a random intercept cross-lagged panel model (RI-CLPM), which calculates within-person fluctuations over time while accounting for individual trait-like stability and between-person variations. Binge eating tendencies were measured by the Cognitive Restraint, Uncontrolled Eating, and Emotional Eating styles from the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18. Two models were created for each binge eating tendencies variable: (1) a basic model with anxiety and stress as independent variables; (2) an interaction model with an additional anxiety*stress interaction term. Model fit was assessed by SEM fit indices: X2, CFI, NFI, TLI, RMSEA, SRMR. Superior model fit was ascertained by a chi-square difference test (p < .05). Results For Cognitive Restraint, the interaction model demonstrated superior fit to the data (p < .05). The anxiety*stress interaction at Waves 1 and 2 was significantly negatively associated with Cognitive Restraint at Waves 2 (β = −0.18, p = .002) and 3 (β = −0.14, p = .002)—suggesting that anxiety and stress interacted to predict increased binge eating tendencies linked with cognitive restraint over and above their independent effects. In contrast, the interaction term between anxiety*stress did not predict levels of Uncontrolled Eating or Emotional Eating over time. Conclusions The results highlight the importance of increasing awareness of the interaction between concurrently high anxiety and stress as a potential risk factor for binge eating tendencies in young people. Trial registration Not applicable.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
Emma Cunningham ◽  
Nicola Gallagher ◽  
Paul Hamilton ◽  
Leeann Bryce ◽  
David Beverland

Abstract Background Hyponatraemia, defined as a serum sodium [Na] concentration below 135 mmol/L, is common following surgery. As inpatient peri-operative stays shorten, there is a need to recognise pre-operative risk factors for post-operative hyponatraemia and complications associated with a peri-operative drop in Na. This audit aimed to investigate the prevalence of, risk factors for, and complications associated with hyponatraemia following elective primary hip and knee arthroplasty. Methods Data were collected within a retrospective audit of inpatient complications and unplanned reattendance or readmission at hospital in consecutive elective primary hip and knee arthroplasty patients in a single high throughput elective primary joint unit. The hospital’s electronic database identified 1000 patients who were admitted electively between February 2012 and June 2013 under the care of a single consultant orthopaedic surgeon for either total hip arthroplasty, total knee arthroplasty, or uni-compartmental knee arthroplasty. Groups were compared using appropriate tests, including chi-square analysis (or Fisher’s exact test), Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Wilcoxin signed-rank test. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with hyponatraemia. Results Of the total 1000 patients, 217 (21.7%) developed post-operative hyponatraemia. Of these, 177 (81.6%) had mild (Na 130–134 mmol/L), 37 (17.1%) had moderate (Na 125–129 mmol/L), and 3 (1.4%) had severe (Na < 125 mmol/L) hyponatraemia. In multivariate analysis, age, pre-operative Na, and fasting glucose on day 1 remained significantly associated with having hyponatraemia post-operatively. There were no significant differences in reattendance at emergency departments and/or readmission within 90 days between those who had post-operative hyponatraemia whilst in hospital (39/217 = 18.0%) and those who did not (103/783 = 13.2%), or between those who were discharged with hyponatraemia (18/108 = 16.7%) and those discharged with normal Na (124/880 = 14.1%). Conclusion Approximately one fifth of elective joint arthroplasty patients had post-operative hyponatraemia. In these patients, older age, lower pre-operative Na and higher fasting glucose predicted post-operative hyponatraemia. We found no evidence that those discharged with hyponatraemia had more reattendance at emergency departments or readmission to hospital. We suggest that otherwise well patients with mild hyponatraemia can safely be discharged and followed up in the community.

2021 ◽  
Vol 503 (1) ◽  
Phạm Anh Tùng ◽  
Trần Thị Len ◽  
Bùi Thanh Thúy ◽  
Trần Thơ Nhị ◽  
Nguyễn Minh Sang ◽  

Mục tiêu: Nghiên cứu này đã khảo sát khả năng sử dụng bộ câu hỏi đánh giá rối loạn căng thẳng sau sang chấn phiên bản tiếng Việt trên sinh viên năm cuối trường Đại học Y Hà Nội trong thời điểm đại dịch COVID-19 từ tháng 3 đến tháng 5 năm 2020. Đối tượng và phương pháp:  Nghiên cứu cắt ngang sử dụng thang đo đánh giá rối loạn căng thẳng sau sang chấn phiên bản tự báo cáo (PSS-SR) trên 68 sinh viên năm thứ 6 đang theo học tại trường Đại học Y Hà Nội năm 2020. Nhóm nghiên cứu sử dụng mô hình CFA và kiểm định độ tin cậy để đánh giá hiệu lực và độ tin cậy của bộ câu hỏi. Kết quả: Theo kết quả kiểm định độ tin cậy, các câu hỏi của thang đo PSS-SR đều có hệ số Cronbach Alpha chấp nhận được về mặt tin cậy (lớn hơn mức yêu cầu 0,6). Xét hệ số tương quan biến - tổng (hiệu chỉnh) của các biến quan sát đều đạt yêu cầu > 0,30. Kiểm định CFA cho thấy mô hình có 116 bậc tự do, giá trị kiểm định chi-square = 235,914 với p < 0,005 và các chỉ số chỉ ra mô hình phù hợp với dữ liệu (CFI = 0,808; RMSEA = 0,124; SRMR= 0,08). Cả 3 thành phần đều đạt được tính đơn hướng. Kết luận: Đề tài nghiên cứu đã kiểm định bản tiếng Việt của bộ câu hỏi đánh giá rối loạn căng thẳng sau sang chấn phiên bản tiếng Việt với 17 câu hỏi đánh giá 3 thành phần: (1) Nhớ lại, (2) Kích thích, (3) Lảng tránh.

Taghreed Hafiz ◽  
Juliana D’Sa ◽  
Sahar Zamzam ◽  
Maria Liza Visbal Dionaldo ◽  
Murad Mubaraki ◽  

Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), an important human pathogen, is classified as a human carcinogen. It is known to cause dyspepsia, peptic ulcers, and gastric cancer. Awareness regarding H. pylori infections in Saudi Arabia awaits investigation to reduce or even eliminate the infection that would ease the substantial burden of managing H. pylori among both malignant and non-malignant diseases. Aims: The study aims were to (1) assess the knowledge of H. pylori infection, testing, and management among undergraduate students in Saudi Arabia and (2) compare the H. pylori knowledge among health science and non-health science students. Methods: This study involved a cross-sectional online survey among 334 undergraduate students in health science and non-health science colleges at King Saud University, Saudi Arabia, using a valid and reliable author-developed survey. The survey had two sections: the socio-demographic factors and knowledge items regarding H. pylori. Data were collected during the 2019–2020 academic year. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, Chi-square, and Mann–Whitney U test. The knowledge scores were categorized as poor, fair, and good. Results: Less than 10% of the students in both groups had a good knowledge level about H. pylori. The comparison of the overall mean between both groups was non-significant. Moreover, the level of knowledge of the respondents was significantly associated with their university level (p < 0.001), family monthly income (p < 0.007), having heard about H. pylori infection (p < 000.1), and a previous history of H. pylori infection (p < 000.1). Conclusion: The overall knowledge level of Saudi undergraduate students about H. pylori infection was low. Thus, health awareness interventions through educational programs are recommended for improving their knowledge about H. pylori infection and its prevention.

2021 ◽  
pp. 112972982110349
Fredy Alejandro Watts ◽  
Andres Ordoñez ◽  
Andres González ◽  
Daniel Carvajal ◽  
Jaime Quintero ◽  

Background: Radial arterial catheters (RAC) are commonly used in emergency services and intensive care units (ICU) for continuous invasive monitoring of blood pressure and arterial blood gas sampling. Complications associated with RAC are rare. Regarding length of RAC catheters and complications, few studies were found in the literature. The present study seeks to provide health care professionals with scientific evidence to select an optimal length of RAC, based on the difference in the incidence of complications between ultrasound-guided catheters of the same diameter but different lengths. Methods: Observational, descriptive, retrospective study. Patients older than 17 years admitted to the emergency department or ICU were included. RAC were placed with diameters of 20 gauge, between 5 and 8 cm (Arrow–Teleflex), and 22 gauge diameters between 4 and 8 cm (Vygon). Univariate analysis was made to determine behavior of the numerical variables. Normality of variables was determined through a Shapiro-Wilk-test. Qualitative variables were expressed in percentages, quantitative variables in means and standard deviation, or with median and quartiles in the case of a non-normal distribution. Chi-square or Fisher method was used for qualitative variables and the t-test for symmetric quantitative variables. Asymmetric distributions were processed with the Mann-Whitney U test. A value p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The statistical analysis was performed with Stata 14.1 program. Results: About 793 RAC were placed between 2016 and 2019 were included, median age was 60 (37–73) (RIQ) years, 49% male. Complications were reported in all groups on average 17.5%, the most frequent being dysfunction/occlusion of the catheter. Given complications of the same diameter and different catheter lengths, there were no statistical differences between groups. Conclusion: Selecting one length or another with a catheter of the same diameter does not have statistically significant differences, in terms of the complications this device may cause—meaning that size does not matter.

e-GIGI ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (2) ◽  
pp. 273
Sindiawani G. Radiani ◽  
Oedijani Santoso ◽  
Yoghi B. Prabowo ◽  
Tira H. Skripsa

Abstract: Utilization of dental and oral health services cover the health service and the usage of facilities. This study was aimed to determine and to analyze the relationship between knowledge, education, income, occupation, and accessibility of dental care utilization and oral health services at Karang- anyar health centers of Purbalingga. This was an analytical survey study with a cross sectional design. There were 185 respondents of the working area of Karanganyar health center selected by consecutive sampling. Data were collected by using a validated questionnaire. Data were analyzed by using chi-square test followed by logistic regression test. The results showed that there were 76.8% of respondents who used dental care and oral health services in the three last months before pandemic Covid-19; 35% of respondents had no work; 69.2% had low level of education; 81.21% had high level of knowledge; 83.2% had low income; and 85.1% clarified that the accessibility was not reachable. The chi-square test showed a significant correlation between levels of knowledge (p=0.02), income (p=0.04), education (p=0.012) and dental care utilization as well as oral health services. The logistic regression test showed that knowledge (OR=0.569 (95%CI:0.358-0.903) was the most dominant correlated to dental care utilization and oral health services. In conclusion, levels of knowledge, income, and education had significant relationships with dental care utilization and oral health services at Karanganyar health center.Keywords: knowledge; income; education; dental care utilization and oral health servicesAbstrak: Pemanfaatan pelayanan kesehatan gigi dan mulut mencakup pelayanan dan penggunaan fasilitas pelayanan kesehatan gigi dan mulut. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui dan menganalisis hubungan antara pengetahuan, pendapatan, pendidikan, pekerjaan, dan aksesibilitas terhadap pemanfaatan pelayanan kesehatan gigi dan mulut di Puskesmas Karanganyar Kabupaten Purbalingga. Jenis penelitian ialah survei analitik dengan desain potong lintang. Sampel penelitian ialah 185 masyarakat di wilayah kerja Puskesmas Karanganyar, dipilih secara consecutive sampling. Pengambilan data dilakukan dengan menggunakan kuisioner yang sudah divalidasi. Data dianalisis menggunakan uji chi-square dilanjutkan dengan uji regresi logistik. Hasil penelitian mendapatkan bahwa responden yang memanfaatkan pelayanan kesehatan gigi dan mulut tida bulan terakhir sebelum pandemi covid-19 sebanyak 76,8%; tidak bekerja 35%; pendidikan rendah 69,2%; tingkat pengetahuan tinggi 81,1%; pendapatan rendah 83,2%; dan 85.1% menyatakan aksesibilitas tidak terjangkau. Hasil uji chi-square menunjukkan hubungan bermakna antara tingkat pengetahuan (p=0,02), pendapatan (p=0,04), pendidikan (p=0,012) terhadap pemanfaatan pelayanan kesehatan gigi dan mulut. Hasil uji regresi logistik menunjukkan bahwa faktor pengetahuan OR=0,569 (95% CI:0,358-0,903) yang paling dominan berhubungan dengan pemanfaatan pelayanan kesehatan gigi dan mulut. Simpulan penelitian ini ialah tingkat pengetahuan, pendapatan, pendidikan memiliki hubungan bermakna dengan pemanfaatanpelayanan kesehatan gigi dan mulut di Puskesmas Karanganyar.Kata kunci: pengetahuan; pendapatan; pendidikan; pemanfaatan pelayanan kesehatan gigi dan mulut 

e-GIGI ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (2) ◽  
pp. 266
Yufitri Mayasari

Abstract: Basic health research of Indonesia in 2018 showed that early childhood caries affected 93% of children. Early dental caries risk assessment using a dental caries risk simulator could be used to determine the appropriate program to prevent dental caries. This study was aimed to analyze the relationship between risk factors and dental caries status in early childhood. This was an analytical study with a cross sectional design using total sampling method. There were 51 preschool children at Taman Kanak Kanak (kindergaten school) Pelita Takwa, Pondok Betung, South Tangerang as samples. Dental caries was assessed by using the def-t index and dental caries risks were assessed by using the Irene's donut program. Interactive interviews with parents were conducted to determine the risk factors for dental caries among the students. The results showed that the prevalence of dental caries was 84.3% and the mean def-t was 5.35. The chi-square test was carried out to determine the relationship between dental caries status and risk factors. The result was not significant for three questions related to the factors, as follows: the child's tooth surface had white spots, the acidity level of the child's teeth was below pH 6.5, and the mother's age was 36 years old. Albeit, twelve other risk factors were shown to be associated with dental caries status. In conclusion, the prevalence of dental caries in preschool children was still high. Risk factors related to the dental caries status among pre-school children can be used as educational materials targeting pre-school children and their parents.Keywords: caries risk; dental caries; preschool children Abstrak: Riset Kesehatan Dasar Indonesia tahun 2018 menunjukkan bahwa 93% anak usia dini mengalami karies gigi. Penilaian risiko karies gigi sejak dini menggunakan simulator risiko karies gigi dapat menjadi salah satu cara untuk menentukan program yang tepat dalam mencegah terjadinya karies gigi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis hubungan faktor risiko dengan status karies gigi pada anak usia dini. Jenis penelitian ialah analitik dengan desain potong lintang menggunakan metode total sampling. Sampel yang diperoleh sebanyak 51 anak usia dini di sekolah Taman Kanak-Kanak Pelita Takwa, Pondok Betung, Tangerang Selatan. Karies gigi dinilai menggunakan indeks def-t dan risiko karies subjek dinilai menggunakan program Irene’s donut. Wawancara interaktif dengan orang tua dilakukan untuk mengetahui faktor risiko terjadinya karies gigi pada pasien tersebut. Hasil penelitian mendapatkan prevalensi karies gigi sebesar 84,3% dengan rerata def-t 5,35. Uji chi-square terhadap hubungan status karies gigi dengan faktor risiko mendapatkan hasil tidak bermakna pada tiga pertanyaan terkait faktor permukaan gigi anak ada bercak putih, tingkat keasaman kuman gigi anak di bawah pH 6,5, dan usia ibu 36 tahun ke atas. Dua belas faktor risiko lainnya terbukti memiliki hubungan dengan status karies gigi.  Simpulan penelitian ini ialah prevalensi karies gigi pada anak prasekolah masih tinggi. Faktor-faktor risiko yang terbukti memiliki hubungan dengan status karies gigi anak dapat dijadikan materi edukasi dengan sasaran anak pra sekolah serta orang tuanya.Kata kunci: risiko karies; karies gigi; anak usia pra sekolah

Loghman Ghaderi ◽  
Ali Reza Naseri

Background: Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia is one of the risk factors for infection in patients undergoing chemotherapy (due to the weakened immune system). Febrile neutropenia (FN) may be the sole indicator of an underlying infection in these patients. Objectives: Since infection is associated with an increased risk of mortality in patients undergoing chemotherapy, the present study aimed to assess the incidence of FN in neutropenic cancer patients admitted to an oncology ward. Methods: This retrospective, descriptive, and cross-sectional study was conducted on 52 patients (selected using the census method) with signs of infection (i.e., FN) hospitalized in Ghazi Tabatabai Hospital in Tabriz, Iran, within 2018 - 2020. The data were collected by a researchermade form and analyzed using descriptive statistics (e.g., frequency, percentage, and mean) and chi-square in SPSS software (version 20). The significance level was considered less than 0.05 Results: The absolute neutrophil count was less than 500 cells/ml in 15.38% of the patients (n = 8). Infection was the cause of FN in 69.23% of the subjects (n = 36). An unknown factor was the cause of infection in 30.77% of the cases. The incidence of all types of infections (i.e., perianal abscess, sepsis, oral infection, cutaneous infection, gastrointestinal infection, pharyngitis, pneumonia, and urinary tract infection) was higher in patients undergoing chemotherapy than that reported for those not receiving chemotherapy. Conclusions: The results of this study suggested that cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy should be aware of infection signs; accordingly, they can visit treatment centers in case of the first symptoms of infection to prevent progression of infection and reduce mortality rates.  

2021 ◽  
Bolaji Felicia Udomah ◽  
Uriel Oludare Ashaolu ◽  
Charles Oluwatemitope Olomofe ◽  
Olufunke Folasade Dada ◽  
Victor Kehinde Soyemi ◽  

Background: The Coronavirus Disease 2019(COVID-19) is far from over, although appreciable progress have been made to limit the devastating effects of the pandemic across the globe. Adequate knowledge and risk perception is a critical assessment that is required to ensure proper preventive measures. This study assessed these among Nigerians. Methods: The study was a cross-sectional assessment of 776 consenting Nigerian adults that were distributed across the 6 geo-political zones and the Federal Capital Territory. Online pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire were used to obtain the socio-demographic data and assessed the knowledge and risk perception of the participants to COVID-19. The knowledge of COVID-19 was assessed based on the number of accurate responses given in comparison to average scores. Chi-square analysis was computed to analysis the association between socio-demographic characteristics and knowledge of COVID-19 and risk perception. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 21, the level of significance was set at value p<0.05 at 95% confidence interval. Results: Majority of the participants were male 451 (58.1%), there was a good knowledge of COVID-19 among 90.3% of respondents with 57% having positive risk perception. There was a statistically significant relationship between good knowledge and positive risk perception of COVID-19 (p < 0.001). Annual income (p =0.012) and the perception that vaccines are good significantly predict positive risk perception of COVID-19 among the respondents. Conclusion: A good knowledge of COVID-19 and vaccination against the virus were the two most important factors that determined risk perception among the population. This may be because of the widespread advocacy, and it portends a good omen at combating COVID-19 menace. Key words: COVID-19, Risk perception, Nigerians

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Rahul Jain ◽  
Kunj Bihari Rana ◽  
Makkhan Lal Meena

PurposeThe COVID-19 pandemic is spreading in India and different parts of the world. The outbreak delivered not only the condition of dying from infection but also forced people (especially office workers and students) to perform all working (office work, classes, assignments, etc.) and non-working activities (leisure activities such as social media, gaming, etc.) at home using handheld devices (HHDs). In this situation, HHD usage for longer durations is mainly responsible for work-related health issues. Therefore, the paper aims to explore HHD usage patterns and musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) amongst HHD users during homestay and the impact of individual and HHD usage–related factors on MSDs.Design/methodology/approachFrom different states of India, 651 people (especially HHD users from universities and industries) were sampled by using systematic cluster random sampling. In addition, an online questionnaire was used to collect data on the prevalence and risk factors of MSDs. Finally, mean comparisons and chi-square analysis was used to analyse the collected data.FindingsThe prevalence rate of MSDs was higher in upper body parts as compared to the lower body parts. The association of gender with MSDs in various body parts was substantial. The time spent on various working and non-working activities using HHDs was significantly associated with MSDs in upper body parts.Practical implicationsHomestay work may be used as an alternative working arrangement, and the risk factors that have the most significant impact on the health of HHD users may be identified by organizations. The findings suggest the proper use of HHDs as per their essential need with intermediate recreational activities.Originality/valueIt is observed that the musculoskeletal health of office workers and university students is a cause for concern during homestay. The current study provides the prevalence of MSDs experienced by HHD users and the association of individual and HHD usage factors with MSDs.

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