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2022 ◽  
Vol 38 (2) ◽  
Xiaoying Tang ◽  
Mengjun Wang ◽  
Qian Wang ◽  
Jingjing Guo ◽  
Jingxiao Zhang

2022 ◽  
Vol 149 ◽  
pp. 107807
Elena González ◽  
Jesús Balado ◽  
Pedro Arias ◽  
Henrique Lorenzo

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 971
Juliana S. Ribeiro ◽  
Eliseu A. Münchow ◽  
Ester A. F. Bordini ◽  
Nathalie S. Rodrigues ◽  
Nileshkumar Dubey ◽  

This study aimed at engineering cytocompatible and injectable antibiotic-laden fibrous microparticles gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) hydrogels for endodontic infection ablation. Clindamycin (CLIN) or metronidazole (MET) was added to a polymer solution and electrospun into fibrous mats, which were processed via cryomilling to obtain CLIN- or MET-laden fibrous microparticles. Then, GelMA was modified with CLIN- or MET-laden microparticles or by using equal amounts of each set of fibrous microparticles. Morphological characterization of electrospun fibers and cryomilled particles was performed via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The experimental hydrogels were further examined for swelling, degradation, and toxicity to dental stem cells, as well as antimicrobial action against endodontic pathogens (agar diffusion) and biofilm inhibition, evaluated both quantitatively (CFU/mL) and qualitatively via confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and SEM. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey’s test (α = 0.05). The modification of GelMA with antibiotic-laden fibrous microparticles increased the hydrogel swelling ratio and degradation rate. Cell viability was slightly reduced, although without any significant toxicity (cell viability > 50%). All hydrogels containing antibiotic-laden fibrous microparticles displayed antibiofilm effects, with the dentin substrate showing nearly complete elimination of viable bacteria. Altogether, our findings suggest that the engineered injectable antibiotic-laden fibrous microparticles hydrogels hold clinical prospects for endodontic infection ablation.

Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 113
Jason L. Brown ◽  
Tracy Young ◽  
Emily McKloud ◽  
Mark C. Butcher ◽  
David Bradshaw ◽  

Denture stomatitis (DS) is an inflammatory disease resulting from a polymicrobial biofilm perturbation at the denture surface–palatal mucosa interface. Recommendations made by dental health care professionals often lack clarity for appropriate denture cleaning. This study investigated the efficacy of brushing with off-the-shelf denture cleanser (DC) tablets (Poligrip®) vs. two toothpastes (Colgate® and Crest®) in alleviating the viable microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) in an in vitro denture biofilm model. Biofilms were grown on poly(methyl)methacrylate (PMMA) discs, then treated daily for 7 days with mechanical disruption (brushing), plus Poligrip® DC, Colgate® or Crest® toothpastes. Weekly treatment with Poligrip® DC on day 7 only was compared to daily modalities. All treatment parameters were processed to determine viable colony forming units for bacteria and fungi using the Miles and Misra technique, and imaged by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Brushing with daily DC therapy was the most effective treatment in reducing the viable biofilm over 7 days of treatment. Brushing only was ineffective in controlling the viable bioburden, which was confirmed by CLSM imaging. This data indicates that regular cleansing of PMMA with DC was best for polymicrobial biofilms.

2022 ◽  
Hannah E Krawczyk ◽  
Siqi Sun ◽  
Nathan Doner ◽  
Qiqi Yan ◽  
Magdiel Sheng Satha Lim ◽  

Membrane contact sites (MCS) are inter-organellar connections that allow for the direct exchange of molecules, such as lipids or Ca2+ between organelles, but can also serve to tether organelles at specific locations within cells. Here we identified and characterised three proteins that form a lipid droplet (LD)-plasma membrane (PM) tethering complex in plant cells, namely LD-localised SEED LD PROTEIN (SLDP) 1 and 2 and PM-localised LD-PLASMA MEMBRANE ADAPTOR (LIPA). Using proteomics and different protein-protein interaction assays, we show that both SLDPs associate with LIPA. Disruption of either SLDP1 and 2 expression, or that of LIPA, leads to an aberrant clustering of LDs in Arabidopsis seedlings. Ectopic co-expression of one of the SLDPs with LIPA on the other hand is sufficient to reconstitute LD-PM tethering in Nicotiana tabacum pollen tubes, a cell type characterised by dynamically moving LDs in the cytosolic streaming. Further, confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed both SLDP2.1 and LIPA to be enriched at LD-PM contact sites in seedlings. These and other results suggest that SLDP and LIPA interact to form a tethering complex that anchors a subset of LDs to the PM during post-germinative seedling growth in Arabidopsis thaliana.

2022 ◽  
Francesco Chianucci ◽  
Carlotta Ferrara ◽  
Nicola Puletti

Digital Cover Photography (DCP) is an increasingly popular tool for estimating canopy cover and leaf area index (LAI). However, existing solutions to process canopy images are predominantly tailored for fisheye photography, whereas open-access tools for DCP are lacking. We developed an R package (coveR) to support the whole processing of DCP images in an automated, fast and reproducible way. The package functions, which are designed for step-by-step single-image analysis, can be performed sequentially in a pipeline and also allow simple implementation of batch-processing bunches of images. A case study is presented to demonstrate the reliability of canopy attributes derived from coveR in pure beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) stands with variable canopy density and structure. Estimates of gap fraction and effective LAI from DCP were validated against reference measurements obtained from terrestrial laser scanning. By providing a simple, transparent and flexible image processing procedure, coveR supported the use of DCP for routine measurements and monitoring of forest canopy attributes. This, combined with the implementability of DCP in many devices, including smartphones, micro-cameras, and remote trail cameras, can greatly expand the accessibility of the method also to non-experts.

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