calf thymus
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Faisal Ameen ◽  
Sharmin Siddiqui ◽  
Ishrat Jahan ◽  
Shahid M. Nayeem ◽  
Sayeed ur Rehman ◽  

Crystals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 15
Ebtisam Alolayqi ◽  
Mohd Afzal ◽  
Abdullah Alarifi ◽  
Abeer Beagan ◽  
Mohd Muddassir

In this study, we attempted to examine the biological activity of the copper(II)–based small molecule aquabis (1-formyl-2-naphtholato-k2O,O′)copper(II) (1) against colon cancer. The characterization of complex 1 was established by analytical and spectral methods in accordance with the single-crystal X-ray results. A monomeric unit of complex 1 exists in an O4 (H2O) coordination environment with slightly distorted square pyramidal geometry (τ = ~0.1). The interaction of complex 1 with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) was determined by employing various biophysical techniques, which revealed that complex 1 binds to ctDNA at the minor groove with a binding constant of 2.38 × 105 M–1. The cytotoxicity of complex 1 towards human colorectal cell line (HCT116) was evaluated by the MTT assay, which showed an IC50 value of 11.6 μM after treatment with complex 1 for 24 h. Furthermore, the apoptotic effect induced by complex 1 was validated by DNA fragmentation pattern, which clarified that apoptosis might be regulated through the mitochondrial-mediated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) causing DNA damage pathway. Additionally, molecular docking was also carried out to confirm the recognition of complex 1 at the minor groove.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (24) ◽  
pp. 7623
Edson Silvio Batista Rodrigues ◽  
Isaac Yves Lopes de Macêdo ◽  
Giovanna Nascimento de Mello e Silva ◽  
Arthur de Carvalho e Silva ◽  
Henric Pietro Vicente Gil ◽  

The binding between anticancer drugs and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) is a key issue to understand their mechanism of action, and many chemical methods have been explored on this task. Molecular docking techniques successfully predict the affinity of small molecules into the DNA binding sites. In turn, various DNA-targeted drugs are electroactive; in this regard, their electrochemical behavior may change according to the nature and strength of interaction with DNA. A carbon paste electrode (CPE) modified with calf thymus ds-DNA (CPDE) and computational methods were used to evaluate the drug–DNA intercalation of doxorubicin (DOX), daunorubicin (DAU), idarubicin (IDA), dacarbazine (DAR), mitoxantrone (MIT), and methotrexate (MTX), aiming to evaluate eventual correlations. CPE and CPDE were immersed in pH 7 0.1 mM solutions of each drug with different incubation times. As expected, the CPDE response for all DNA-targeted drugs was higher than that of CPE, evidencing the drug–DNA interaction. A peak current increase of up to 10-fold was observed; the lowest increase was seen for MTX, and the highest increase for MIT. Although this increase in the sensitivity is certainly tied to preconcentration effects of DNA, the data did not agree entirely with docking studies, evidencing the participation of other factors, such as viscosity, interfacial electrostatic interactions, and coefficient of diffusion.


Objective: Coordination compounds occur widely in nature and they comprise a large share of current inorganic research. The Mannich reaction is a classic method for the preparation of Mannich bases, namely, β amino compounds, which are heterocyclic. Methods: A novel Mannich base of N-((3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)(2,5-dioxopyrrolidin-1-yl) methyl)benzamide and its coordination complexes with transition metals Mn and Co have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility measurements, UV-Visible, IR, NMR, and Mass spectral studies. Results: Based on the magnetic moment and UV-Visible spectral data, octahedral geometries were assigned for the metal complexes. The metal complexes were screened for antifungal activity. Conclusion: the metal complexes have shown good activity than the ligand. The binding of selected metal complexes with calf thymus DNA was investigated. It is found that the cobalt (II) metal complex of the ligand showed efficient DNA binding ability.

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