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2022 ◽  
Rania M. Gomaa ◽  
Magda A. El-Sayed ◽  
Khalid Bashir Selim

Abstract New compounds of 4-anilino-6-substituted quinazoline were designed, synthesized and tested for their EGFR-TK and tumor growth inhibitory activities. The synthesized compounds were appended with amides 6 and 7, dithiocarbamate ester 8a–f or urea/thiourea 9–12 moieties at C-6 of the quinazoline ring to work as extra hydrogen bond acceptors. All the synthesized compounds were effective against EGFR-TK activity, particularly, derivatives 8a, 8f and 9 with IC50 values of 0.14±0.003, 0.119±0.003, and 0.115±0.002 μM, respectively, showed the best activities. The three compounds were further assayed for their cytotoxicity against MCF-7, H-69, SKOV-3 and LS-174T cell lines. Multikinase enzymes inhibition activity of compound 9 was further screened including VEGFR-2, c-MER, c-MET and Her-2. Compounds 8a, 8f, and 9 were docked into the ATP binding site of EGFR-TK which also had resemblance binding pattern to erlotinib with extra binding mode with Cys-773 at the gatekeeper of the enzyme. Cell cycle analyses of MCF-7 cells treated with 8a and 9 was measured in addition to other related factors such as Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-9, and PARP-1.

Inorganics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 12
Matteo Savastano ◽  
Valeria Monini ◽  
Carla Bazzicalupi ◽  
Antonio Bianchi

Iodine-dense polyiodide phases are interesting materials for a number of potential uses, including batteries and solid-state conductors. The incorporation of transition metal cations is considered a promising way to enhance the stability, tune the properties, and influence the architecture of polyiodides. However, several interesting metals, including Cu(II), may suffer redox processes, which generally make them not compatible with the I2/I− redox couple. Herein L, a simple derivative of cyclen, is proposed as a Cu(II) ligand capable of protecting the +2 oxidation state of the metal even in the presence of polyiodides. With a step by step approach, we report the crystal structure of free L; then we present spectrophotometric verification of Cu(II) complex stability, stoichiometry, and formation kinetic in DMF solution, together with Cu(II) binding mode elucidation via XRD analysis of [Cu(L)Cl]ClO4∙CH3CN crystals; afterwards, the stability of the CuL complex in the presence of I− is demonstrated in DMF solution, where the formation of a Cu:L:I− ternary complex, rather than reduction to Cu(I), is observed; lastly, polyiodide crystals are prepared, affording the [Cu(L)I]2I3I5 crystal structure. This layered structure is highly peculiar due to its chiral arrangement, opening further perspective for the crystal engineering of polyiodide phases.

Rafat Milad Mohareb ◽  
Noha M. Asaad Bagato ◽  
Ibrahim Taha Radwan

Background: Cancer is a disease illustrated by a shift in the controlled mechanisms that control both cell proliferation and differentiation. It is regarded as a prime health problem worldwide, leading cause of human death-rate exceeded only by cardiovascular diseases. Many reported work was concerned with the discovery of new antitumor compounds this encourage us to synthesis new anticancer agents. Objective: In this work, we are aiming to synthesize target molecules from 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds through many heterocyclization reactions. Method: The reaction of either 4-methylaniline (1a) or 1-naphthylamine (1b) with diethyl malonate (2) gave the anilide derivatives 3a and 3b, respectively. The latter products underwent a series of heterocyclization reactions to give the pyridine, pyran andthiazole derivatives which confirmed with the required spectral data. Results: Thein-vitro antitumor evaluations of the newly synthesized products against four cancer cell lines MCF-7, NCI-H460, SF-268 and WI 38 as normal cell line were screened and the data revealed that compounds 11a, 18b, 18c and 20d showed high antitumor activity and 20dindividualize with potential antitumor activity towards cell lines with lowest cytotoxicity effect. Both EGFR and PIM-1 enzyme inhibition were investigated for the compound 20d and his inhibition effect was promising for each enzyme showing IC50=45.67 ng and 553.3 ng for EGFR and PIM-1, respectively. Conclusion: Molecular docking results of compound 20d showed a strong binding interactions on both enzymes, where, good binding modes obtained on case of EGFR, which closely similar to the binding mode of standard Erlotinib. While, 20d showed complete superimposition binding interactions with VRV-cocrystallized ligand of PIM-1 that may expounds the in-vitro antitumor activity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 3-10
Connor Atkinson

Phthalocyanine molecules have the potential to be used in select Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) and Luminescent Solar Concentrators (LSCs), due to UV-Vis absorbance in the 300-450 (nm) Soret Band, corresponding to π HOMO-1 to π* LUMO transition and 550-690 (nm) Q-band, corresponding to π HOMO to π* LUMO transitions. In this study Tetranitro Zinc (II) Phthalocyanine is synthesized via base catalysis before the product is characterized via IR, 1H NMR & UV-Vis analysis. Assessing the desirability of the Tetranitro Zinc (II) Phthalocyanine as a solar organic semiconducting dye in DSSCs and LSCs. The desirability is assessed by novel computational DFT calculations, of the aggregation binding mode to deduce if Aggregation-Caused Quenching (ACQ) is occurring in the aggregated sample. ACQ is known to reduce DSSCs and LSCs generation of useful photo-active current. Aggregation-Caused Quenching (ACQ) is mathematically indicated in Phthalocyanine aggregation and Tetranitro Zinc (II) Phthalocyanine’s desirability is assessed for further use in DSSCs and LSCs.

Computation ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 7
Simone Brogi ◽  
Mark Tristan Quimque ◽  
Kin Israel Notarte ◽  
Jeremiah Gabriel Africa ◽  
Jenina Beatriz Hernandez ◽  

The unprecedented global health threat of SARS-CoV-2 has sparked a continued interest in discovering novel anti-COVID-19 agents. To this end, we present here a computer-based protocol for identifying potential compounds targeting RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). Starting from our previous study wherein, using a virtual screening campaign, we identified a fumiquinazolinone alkaloid quinadoline B (Q3), an antiviral fungal metabolite with significant activity against SARS-CoV-2 RdRp, we applied in silico combinatorial methodologies for generating and screening a library of anti-SARS-CoV-2 candidates with strong in silico affinity for RdRp. For this study, the quinadoline pharmacophore was subjected to structural iteration, obtaining a Q3-focused library of over 900,000 unique structures. This chemical library was explored to identify binders of RdRp with greater affinity with respect to the starting compound Q3. Coupling this approach with the evaluation of physchem profile, we found 26 compounds with significant affinities for the RdRp binding site. Moreover, top-ranked compounds were submitted to molecular dynamics to evaluate the stability of the systems during a selected time, and to deeply investigate the binding mode of the most promising derivatives. Among the generated structures, five compounds, obtained by inserting nucleotide-like scaffolds (1, 2, and 5), heterocyclic thiazolyl benzamide moiety (compound 3), and a peptide residue (compound 4), exhibited enhanced binding affinity for SARS-CoV-2 RdRp, deserving further investigation as possible antiviral agents. Remarkably, the presented in silico procedure provides a useful computational procedure for hit-to-lead optimization, having implications in anti-SARS-CoV-2 drug discovery and in general in the drug optimization process.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Mark Chernyshev ◽  
Mateusz Kaduk ◽  
Martin Corcoran ◽  
Gunilla B. Karlsson Hedestam

Macaques are frequently used to evaluate candidate vaccines and to study infection-induced antibody responses, requiring an improved understanding of their naïve immunoglobulin (IG) repertoires. Baseline gene usage frequencies contextualize studies of antigen-specific immune responses, providing information about how easily one may stimulate a response with a particular VDJ recombination. Studies of human IgM repertoires have shown that IG VDJ gene frequencies vary several orders of magnitude between the most and least utilized genes in a manner that is consistent across many individuals but to date similar analyses are lacking for macaque IgM repertoires. Here, we quantified VDJ gene usage levels in unmutated IgM repertoires of 45 macaques, belonging to two species and four commonly used subgroups: Indian and Chinese origin rhesus macaques and Indonesian and Mauritian origin cynomolgus macaques. We show that VDJ gene frequencies differed greatly between the most and least used genes, with similar overall patterns observed in macaque subgroups and individuals. However, there were also clear differences affecting the use of specific V, D and J genes. Furthermore, in contrast to humans, macaques of both species utilized IGHV4 family genes to a much higher extent and showed evidence of evolutionary expansion of genes of this family. Finally, we used the results to inform the analysis of a broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibody elicited in SHIV-infected rhesus macaques, RHA1.V2.01, which binds the apex of the Env trimer in a manner that mimics the binding mode of PGT145. We discuss the likelihood that similar antibodies could be elicited in different macaque subgroups.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Tzu-Ping Ko ◽  
Yu-Chuan Wang ◽  
Chia-Shin Yang ◽  
Mei-Hui Hou ◽  
Chao-Jung Chen ◽  

AbstractMammalian innate immune sensor STING (STimulator of INterferon Gene) was recently found to originate from bacteria. During phage infection, bacterial STING sense c-di-GMP generated by the CD-NTase (cGAS/DncV-like nucleotidyltransferase) encoded in the same operon and signal suicide commitment as a defense strategy that restricts phage propagation. However, the precise binding mode of c-di-GMP to bacterial STING and the specific recognition mechanism are still elusive. Here, we determine two complex crystal structures of bacterial STING/c-di-GMP, which provide a clear picture of how c-di-GMP is distinguished from other cyclic dinucleotides. The protein-protein interactions further reveal the driving force behind filament formation of bacterial STING. Finally, we group the bacterial STING into two classes based on the conserved motif in β-strand lid, which dictate their ligand specificity and oligomerization mechanism, and propose an evolution-based model that describes the transition from c-di-GMP-dependent signaling in bacteria to 2’3’-cGAMP-dependent signaling in eukaryotes.

Viruses ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 119
Sophia S. Borisevich ◽  
Edward M. Khamitov ◽  
Maxim A. Gureev ◽  
Olga I. Yarovaya ◽  
Nadezhda B. Rudometova ◽  

In this work, we evaluated the antiviral activity of Arbidol (Umifenovir) against SARS-CoV-2 using a pseudoviral system with the glycoprotein S of the SARS-CoV-2 virus on its surface. In order to search for binding sites to protein S of the virus, we described alternative binding sites of Arbidol in RBD and in the ACE-2-RBD complex. As a result of our molecular dynamics simulations combined with molecular docking data, we note the following fact: wherever the molecules of Arbidol bind, the interaction of the latter affects the structural flexibility of the protein. This interaction may result both in a change in the shape of the domain–enzyme binding interface and simply in a change in the structural flexibility of the domain, which can subsequently affect its affinity to the enzyme. In addition, we examined the possibility of Arbidol binding in the stem part of the surface protein. The possibility of Arbidol binding in different parts of the protein is not excluded. This may explain the antiviral activity of Arbidol. Our results could be useful for researchers searching for effective SARS-CoV-2 virus inhibitors targeting the viral entry stage.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 387
Xiangcong Wang ◽  
Moxuan Zhang ◽  
Ranran Zhu ◽  
Zhongshan Wu ◽  
Fanhong Wu ◽  

PI3Kα is one of the potential targets for novel anticancer drugs. In this study, a series of 2-difluoromethylbenzimidazole derivatives were studied based on the combination of molecular modeling techniques 3D-QSAR, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics. The results showed that the best comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) model had q2 = 0.797 and r2 = 0.996 and the best comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) model had q2 = 0.567 and r2 = 0.960. It was indicated that these 3D-QSAR models have good verification and excellent prediction capabilities. The binding mode of the compound 29 and 4YKN was explored using molecular docking and a molecular dynamics simulation. Ultimately, five new PI3Kα inhibitors were designed and screened by these models. Then, two of them (86, 87) were selected to be synthesized and biologically evaluated, with a satisfying result (22.8 nM for 86 and 33.6 nM for 87).

2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Savita A. Kundaikar ◽  
Sudesh M. Morajkar ◽  
Wolfgang Bensch ◽  
Bikshandarkoil R. Srinivasan

Abstract The reaction of Na2MoO4·2H2O with 2-amino-2-(hydroxymethyl)propane-1,3-diol (LH) in water at room temperature results in the formation of the heterometallic coordination polymer [Mo2O6L2(Na2(H2O)4)]·2H2O 1 (L = 2-amino-3-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)propan-1-olato). The structure of 1 consists of a neutral (Mo2O6) unit located on an inversion center. The Mo atoms exhibit hexa-coordination and are bonded to two terminal and two bridging oxido ligands, an alkoxide oxygen and the amine N atoms of an anionic ligand L– resulting in the formation of an edge-sharing {Mo2O8N2} bioctahedron. The Na+ cations of a centrosymmetric bis(μ2-aqua)-bridged (Na2(H2O)4)2+ unit are penta-coordinated and bonded to two symmetry related L– ligands via the oxygen atoms of their OH groups. The µ3-bridging tetradentate binding mode of L– results in the formation of a two-dimensional heterometallic coordination polymer. The constituents of 1 viz. (Mo2O6), (L)–, (Na2(H2O)4)2+ and lattice water molecules are interlinked with the aid of three varieties of hydrogen bonding interactions. The corresponding tungstate reported recently has been obtained through a similar synthetic protocol and is isostructural.

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