electrostatic interactions
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Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 569
Oleg E. Polozhentsev ◽  
Ilia A. Pankin ◽  
Darya V. Khodakova ◽  
Pavel V. Medvedev ◽  
Anna S. Goncharova ◽  

Herein we report the development of a nanocomposite for X-ray-induced photodynamic therapy (X-PDT) and computed tomography (CT) based on PEG-capped GdF3:Tb3+ scintillating nanoparticles conjugated with Rose Bengal photosensitizer via electrostatic interactions. Scintillating GdF3:Tb3+ nanoparticles were synthesized by a facile and cost-effective wet chemical precipitation method. All synthesized nanoparticles had an elongated “spindle-like” clustered morphology with an orthorhombic structure. The structure, particle size, and morphology were determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis. The presence of a polyethylene glycol (PEG) coating and Rose Bengal conjugates was proved by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), and ultraviolet–visible (UV-vis) analysis. Upon X-ray irradiation of the colloidal PEG-capped GdF3:Tb3+–Rose Bengal nanocomposite solution, an efficient fluorescent resonant energy transfer between scintillating nanoparticles and Rose Bengal was detected. The biodistribution of the synthesized nanoparticles in mice after intravenous administration was studied by in vivo CT imaging.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 493
Fares Zouaoui ◽  
Saliha Bourouina-Bacha ◽  
Mustapha Bourouina ◽  
Nadia Zine ◽  
Abdelhamid Errachid ◽  

The massive and careless use of glyphosate (GLY) in agricultural production raises many questions regarding environmental pollution and health risks, it is then important to develop simple methods to detect it. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is an effective analytical tool for characterizing properties at the electrode/electrolyte interface. It is useful as an analytical procedure, but it can also help in the interpretation of the involved fundamental electrochemical and electronic processes. In this study, the impedance data obtained experimentally for a microsensor based on molecularly imprinted chitosan graft on 4-aminophenylacetic acid for the detection of glyphosate was analyzed using an exact mathematical model based on physical theories. The procedure for modeling experimental responses is well explained. The analysis of the observed impedance response leads to estimations of the microscopic parameters linked to the faradic and capacitive current. The interaction of glyphosate molecules with the imprinted sites of the CS-MIPs film is observed in the high frequency range. The relative variation of the charge transfer resistance is proportional to the log of the concentration of glyphosate. The capacitance decreases as the concentration of glyphosate increases, which is explained by the discharging of the charged imprinted sites when the glyphosate molecule interacts with the imprinted sites through electrostatic interactions. The phenomenon of adsorption of the ions in the CMA film is observed in the low frequency range, this phenomenon being balanced by the electrostatic interaction of glyphosate with the imprinted sites in the CS-MIPs film.

Biomolecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 123
Xiuxiu Wang ◽  
Nan Yang ◽  
Juan Su ◽  
Chenchen Wu ◽  
Shengtang Liu ◽  

The endohedral metallofullerenol Gd@C82(OH)22 has been identified as a possible antineoplastic agent that can inhibit both the growth and metastasis of cancer cells. Despite these potentially important effects, our understanding of the interactions between Gd@C82(OH)22 and biomacromolecules remains incomplete. Here, we study the interaction between Gd@C82(OH)22 and the human voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (hVDAC1), the most abundant porin embedded in the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM), and a potential druggable target for novel anticancer therapeutics. Using in silico approaches, we observe that Gd@C82(OH)22 molecules can permeate and form stable interactions with the pore of hVDAC1. Further, this penetration can occur from either side of the MOM to elicit blockage of the pore. The binding between Gd@C82(OH)22 and hVDAC1 is largely driven by long-range electrostatic interactions. Analysis of the binding free energies indicates that it is thermodynamically more favorable for Gd@C82(OH)22 to bind to the hVDAC1 pore when it enters the channel from inside the membrane rather than from the cytoplasmic side of the protein. Multiple factors contribute to the preferential penetration, including the surface electrostatic landscape of hVDAC1 and the unique physicochemical properties of Gd@C82(OH)22. Our findings provide insights into the potential molecular interactions of macromolecular biological systems with the Gd@C82(OH)22 nanodrug.

2022 ◽  
Igor Aronson ◽  
Jiyuan Wang ◽  
Mu-Jie Huang ◽  
Remmi Baker-Sediako ◽  
Raymond Kapral

Abstract Control of the individual and collective behavior of self-propelled synthetic micro-objects has immediate application for nanotechnology, robotics, and precision medicine. Despite significant progress in the synthesis and characterization of self-propelled Janus (two-faced) particles, predictive understanding of their behavior remains challenging, especially if the particles have anisotropic forms. Here, by using molecular simulation, we describe the interactions of chemically-propelled microtori near a wall. The results show that a torus hovers at a certain distance from the wall due to a combination of gravity and hydrodynamic flows generated by the chemical activity. Moreover, electrostatic dipolar interactions between the torus and the wall result in a spontaneous tilt and horizontal translation, in a qualitative agreement with the experiment. Simulations of the dynamics of two tori near a wall provide evidence for the formation of stable self-propelled bound states. Our results illustrate that self-organization at the microscale occurs due to a combination of multiple factors, including hydrodynamic, chemical, and electrostatic interactions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
Bo Jin ◽  
Hai-Ru Li ◽  
Zhihong Wei ◽  
Miao Yan ◽  
Caixia Yuan ◽  

AbstractNon-spherical distributions of ligand atoms in coordination complexes are generally unfavorable due to higher repulsion than for spherical distributions. To the best of our knowledge, non-spherical heptagonal bipyramidal nonacoordination is hitherto unreported, because of extremely high repulsion among seven equatorial ligand atoms. Herein, we report the computational prediction of such nonacoordination, which is constructed by the synergetic coordination of an equatorial hepta-dentate centripetal ligand (B7O7) and two axial mono-dentate ligands (-BO) in the gear-like mono-anionic complexes [OB-M©B7O7-BO]– (M = Fe, Ru, Os). The high repulsion among seven equatorial ligand B atoms has been compensated by the strong B–O bonding. These complexes are the dynamically stable (up to 1500 K) global energy minima with the HOMO-LUMO gaps of 7.15 to 7.42 eV and first vertical detachment energies of 6.14 to 6.66 eV (being very high for anions), suggesting their high probability for experimental realization in both gas-phase and condensed phases. The high stability stems geometrically from the surrounded outer-shell oxygen atoms and electronically from meeting the 18e rule as well as possessing the σ + π + δ triple aromaticity. Remarkably, the ligand-metal interactions are governed not by the familiar donation and backdonation interactions, but by the electrostatic interactions and electron-sharing bonding.

Anna Clara Milesi Galdino ◽  
Lívia Viganor ◽  
Matheus Mendonça Pereira ◽  
Michael Devereux ◽  
Malachy McCann ◽  

AbstractTackling microbial resistance requires continuous efforts for the development of new molecules with novel mechanisms of action and potent antimicrobial activity. Our group has previously identified metal-based compounds, [Ag(1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione)2]ClO4 (Ag-phendione) and [Cu(1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione)3](ClO4)2.4H2O (Cu-phendione), with efficient antimicrobial action against multidrug-resistant species. Herein, we investigated the ability of Ag-phendione and Cu-phendione to bind with double-stranded DNA using a combination of in silico and in vitro approaches. Molecular docking revealed that both phendione derivatives can interact with the DNA by hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. Cu-phendione exhibited the highest binding affinity to either major (− 7.9 kcal/mol) or minor (− 7.2 kcal/mol) DNA grooves. In vitro competitive quenching assays involving duplex DNA with Hoechst 33258 or ethidium bromide demonstrated that Ag-phendione and Cu-phendione preferentially bind DNA in the minor grooves. The competitive ethidium bromide displacement technique revealed Cu-phendione has a higher binding affinity to DNA (Kapp = 2.55 × 106 M−1) than Ag-phendione (Kapp = 2.79 × 105 M−1) and phendione (Kapp = 1.33 × 105 M−1). Cu-phendione induced topoisomerase I-mediated DNA relaxation of supercoiled plasmid DNA. Moreover, Cu-phendione was able to induce oxidative DNA injuries with the addition of free radical scavengers inhibiting DNA damage. Ag-phendione and Cu-phendione avidly displaced propidium iodide bound to DNA in permeabilized Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells in a dose-dependent manner as judged by flow cytometry. The treatment of P. aeruginosa with bactericidal concentrations of Cu-phendione (15 µM) induced DNA fragmentation as visualized by either agarose gel or TUNEL assays. Altogether, these results highlight a possible novel DNA-targeted mechanism by which phendione-containing complexes, in part, elicit toxicity toward the multidrug-resistant pathogen P. aeruginosa. Graphical abstract

Polymers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 252
Natalia Lukasheva ◽  
Dmitry Tolmachev ◽  
Hector Martinez-Seara ◽  
Mikko Karttunen

Electrostatic interactions have a determining role in the conformational and dynamic behavior of polyelectrolyte molecules. In this study, anionic polyelectrolyte molecules, poly(glutamic acid) (PGA) and poly(aspartic acid) (PASA), in a water solution with the most commonly used K+ or Na+ counterions, were investigated using atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We performed a comparison of seven popular force fields, namely AMBER99SB-ILDN, AMBER14SB, AMBER-FB15, CHARMM22*, CHARMM27, CHARMM36m and OPLS-AA/L, both with their native parameters and using two common corrections for overbinding of ions, the non-bonded fix (NBFIX), and electronic continuum corrections (ECC). These corrections were originally introduced to correct for the often-reported problem concerning the overbinding of ions to the charged groups of polyelectrolytes. In this work, a comparison of the simulation results with existing experimental data revealed several differences between the investigated force fields. The data from these simulations and comparisons with previous experimental data were then used to determine the limitations and strengths of these force fields in the context of the structural and dynamic properties of anionic polyamino acids. Physical properties, such as molecular sizes, local structure, and dynamics, were studied using two types of common counterions, namely potassium and sodium. The results show that, in some cases, both the macroion size and dynamics depend strongly on the models (parameters) for the counterions due to strong overbinding of the ions and charged side chain groups. The local structures and dynamics are more sensitive to dihedral angle parameterization, resulting in a preference for defined monomer conformations and the type of correction used. We also provide recommendations based on the results.

Robert A. Toro ◽  
Analio Dugarte-Dugarte ◽  
Jacco van de Streek ◽  
José Antonio Henao ◽  
José Miguel Delgado ◽  

The structure of racemic (RS)-trichlormethiazide [systematic name: (RS)-6-chloro-3-(dichloromethyl)-1,1-dioxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-1λ6,2,4-benzothiadiazine-7-sulfonamide], C8H8Cl3N3O4S2 (RS-TCMZ), a diuretic drug used in the treatment of oedema and hypertension, was determined from laboratory X-ray powder diffraction data using DASH [David et al. (2006). J. Appl. Cryst. 39, 910–915.], refined by the Rietveld method with TOPAS-Academic [Coelho (2018). J. Appl. Cryst. 51, 210–218], and optimized using DFT-D calculations. The extended structure consists of head-to-tail dimers connected by π–π interactions which, in turn, are connected by C—Cl...π interactions. They form chains propagating along [101], further connected by N—H...O hydrogen bonds to produce layers parallel to the ac plane that stack along the b-axis direction, connected by additional N—H...O hydrogen bonds. The Hirshfeld surface analysis indicates a major contribution of H...O and H...Cl interactions (32.2 and 21.7%, respectively). Energy framework calculations confirm the major contribution of electrostatic interactions (E elec) to the total energy (E tot). A comparison with the structure of S-TCMZ is also presented.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Chinatsu Shinozaki ◽  
Keita Kohno ◽  
Mitsunori Shiroishi ◽  
Daisuke Takahashi ◽  
Yu Yoshikawa ◽  

AbstractWe have recently developed a mouse monoclonal antibody (12–10H) binding to the head domain region in rat P2X4 receptor (rP2X4R, which is crucial for the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain) expressed on the cell with the highest binding affinity (KD = 20 nM). However, the 12–10H antibody failed to detect endogenously expressed P2X4Rs in microglia isolated from the spinal cord of rats whose spinal nerves were injured. Then, we prepared R5 mutant, in which five arginine residues were introduced into variable regions except for the “hot spot” in the 12–10H antibody to increase electrostatic interactions with the head domain, an anionic region, in rP2X4R. The mutation resulted in an increase of 50-fold in the affinity of the R5 mutant for the head domain with respect to the intact 12–10H antibody. As a result, detection of P2X4Rs endogenously expressed on primary cultured microglial cells originated from the neonatal rat brain and spinal cord microglia isolated from a rat model of neuropathic pain was achieved. These findings suggest a strategy to improve the affinity of a monoclonal antibody for an anionic antigen by the introduction of several arginine residues into variable regions other than the “hot spot” in the paratope.

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