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Desalination ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 526 ◽  
pp. 115539
Abolfazl Ansari ◽  
Fariba Malekpour Galogahi ◽  
David V. Thiel ◽  
Fernanda Helfer ◽  
Graeme Millar ◽  

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 256
Bommanna G. Krishnappan

In this paper, a review of a semi-empirical modelling approach for cohesive sediment transport in river systems is presented. The mathematical modelling of cohesive sediment transport is a challenge because of the number of governing parameters controlling the various transport processes involved in cohesive sediment, and hence a semi-empirical approach is a viable option. A semi-empirical model of cohesive sediment called the RIVFLOC model developed by Krishnappan is reviewed and the model parameters that need to be determined using a rotating circular flume are highlighted. The parameters that were determined using a rotating circular flume during the application of the RIVFLOC model to different river systems include the critical shear stress for erosion of the cohesive sediment, critical shear stress for deposition according to the definition of Partheniades, critical shear stress for deposition according to the definition of Krone, the cohesion parameter governing the flocculation of cohesive sediment and a set of empirical parameters that define the density of the floc in terms of the size of the flocs. An examination of the variability of these parameters shows the need for testing site-specific sediments using a rotating circular flume to achieve a reliable prediction of the RIVFLOC model. Application of the model to various river systems has highlighted the need for including the entrapment process in a cohesive sediment transport model.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Shabab Noor Islam ◽  
Tanvir Ahammed ◽  
Aniqua Anjum ◽  
Olayan Albalawi ◽  
Md. Jamal Uddin

Abstract Background Mendelian randomization (MR) studies using Genetic risk scores (GRS) as an instrumental variable (IV) have increasingly been used to control for unmeasured confounding in observational healthcare databases. However, proper reporting of methodological issues is sparse in these studies. We aimed to review published papers related to MR studies and identify reporting problems. Methods We conducted a systematic review using the clinical articles published between 2009 and 2019. We searched PubMed, Scopus, and Embase databases. We retrieved information from every MR study, including the tests performed to evaluate assumptions and the modelling approach used for estimation. Using our inclusion/exclusion criteria, finally, we identified 97 studies to conduct the review according to the PRISMA statement. Results Only 66 (68%) of the studies empirically verified the first assumption (Relevance assumption), and 40 (41.2%) studies reported the appropriate tests (e.g., R2, F-test) to investigate the association. A total of 35.1% clearly stated and discussed theoretical justifications for the second and third assumptions. 30.9% of the studies used a two-stage least square, and 11.3% used the Wald estimator method for estimating IV. Also, 44.3% of the studies conducted a sensitivity analysis to illuminate the robustness of estimates for violations of the untestable assumptions. Conclusions We found that incompleteness of the justification of the assumptions for the instrumental variable in MR studies was a common problem in our selected studies. This may misdirect the findings of the studies.

2022 ◽  
pp. pdajpst.2021.012658
Sébastien Dasnoy ◽  
Laura Simonin ◽  
Soizic Radulovic ◽  
Andy White ◽  
Jean-François Decoster ◽  

2022 ◽  
Martin Lindegren ◽  
Aurelia Pereira Gabellini ◽  
Peter Munk ◽  
Karen Edelvang ◽  
Flemming Hansen

Abstract Non-indigenous species (NIS) pose a major threat to biodiversity and the functioning and services of ecosystems. Despite their rapid spread in coastal waters worldwide, biotic invasions are widely disregarded in marine conservation planning. To guide conservation actions, a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms determining the success of NIS are therefore needed. Here we develop a joint modelling approach to identify the key drivers and community assembly processes determining the occurrence of invasive benthic invertebrates, using Danish coastal waters as a case study. To reflect factors affecting the introduction, establishment and spread of NIS throughout the area, we compiled long-term monitoring data on NIS, as well as information on commercial shipping, environmental conditions and estimates of larvae settling densities derived from drift model simulations informed by species traits. We then applied a set of species distribution models to identify the key drivers determining the occurrence of NIS. Our results demonstrate a significant positive effect of vessel activity, a negative effect of depth and bottom salinity, as well as a positive effect of the simulated settling densities on the probability of presence. Taken together, our results highlight the role of commercial shipping, habitat characteristics and passive advection of early-life stages on the success of NIS. Our joint modelling approach provide improved process understanding on the key community assembly processes determining the presence of NIS and may serve to guide monitoring, management and conservation planning in order to limit future invasions and their negative consequences on coastal ecosystems.

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 166
Rui M. C. Viegas ◽  
Ana S. Mestre ◽  
Elsa Mesquita ◽  
Miguel Machuqueiro ◽  
Marta A. Andrade ◽  

Projection to Latent Structures (PLS) regression, a generalization of multiple linear regression, is used to model two datasets (40 observed data points each) of adsorption removal of three pharmaceutical compounds (PhCs), of different therapeutic classes and physical–chemical properties (carbamazepine, diclofenac, and sulfamethoxazole), from six real secondary effluents collected from wastewater treatment plants onto different powdered activated carbons (PACs). For the PLS regression, 25 descriptors were considered: 7 descriptors related to the PhCs properties, 10 descriptors related to the wastewaters properties (8 related to the organic matrix and 2 to the inorganic matrix), and 8 descriptors related to the PACs properties. This modelling approach showed good descriptive capability, showing that hydrophobic PhC-PAC interactions play the major role in the adsorption process, with the solvation energy and log Kow being the most suitable descriptors. The results also stress the importance of the competition effects of water dissolved organic matter (DOM), namely of its slightly hydrophobic compounds impacting the adsorption capacity or its charged hydrophilic compounds impacting the short-term adsorption, while the water inorganic matrix only appears to impact PAC adsorption capacity and not the short-term adsorption. For the pool of PACs tested, the results point to the BET area as a good descriptor of the PAC capacity, while the short-term adsorption kinetics appears to be better related to its supermicropore volume and density. The improvement in these PAC properties should be regarded as a way of refining their performance. The correlations obtained, involving the impact of water, PhC and PAC-related descriptors, show the existence of complex interactions that a univariate analysis is not sufficient to describe.

2022 ◽  
Luca Pedruzzi ◽  
Anna Schertler ◽  
Silvia Giuntini ◽  
Ivan Leggiero ◽  
Emiliano Mori

AbstractThe coypu, Myocastor coypus, has been introduced worldwide for fur farming and is widely recognized as one of the most invasive alien mammals of the world, affecting natural ecosystems, crops and possibly human health. Here we present a comprehensive up-to-date review of its distribution and status in Asia and Africa. Using a multi-source approach, we collected occurrences from published literature as well as from online biodiversity platforms (e.g. GBIF, iNaturalist), video sharing platforms, and local experts. Additionally, we used an ensemble modelling approach to predict the climatic suitability across Africa and Asia. We present an updated distribution map, including a total of 1506 spatially explicit records from 1973 to 2021, covering 1 African and 16 Asian countries. We find evidence for current populations in Kenya and five new countries since the last review of (Carter and Leonard, Wildl Soc Bull 30:162–175, 2002): Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Uzbekistan, and Vietnam, and identify main clusters of coypu occurrence in Western (including Transcaucasia) and East Asia. We show that warm temperate and Mediterranean areas on both continents are predicted to be climatically suitable for the coypu and highlight not only areas of possible spread, but also potential data gaps, i.e. with high suitability and low availability of concrete information (e.g. China, Southern Russia). We emphasize the importance of citizen involvement and the urgency for coypu-targeted studies in data-poor regions to obtain a clear picture of the geographical distribution and to better address management strategies.

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