airway hyperreactivity
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol 103 ◽  
pp. 108432
Shilovskiy IP ◽  
Sundukova MS ◽  
Korneev AV ◽  
Nikolskii AA ◽  
Barvinskaya ED ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Stephanie Musiol ◽  
Francesca Alessandrini ◽  
Constanze A. Jakwerth ◽  
Adam M. Chaker ◽  
Evelyn Schneider ◽  

TGF-β1 is known to have a pro-inflammatory impact by inducing Th9 and Th17 cells, while it also induces anti-inflammatory Treg cells (Tregs). In the context of allergic airway inflammation (AAI) its dual role can be of critical importance in influencing the outcome of the disease. Here we demonstrate that TGF-β is a major player in AAI by driving effector T cells, while Tregs differentiate independently. Induction of experimental AAI and airway hyperreactivity in a mouse model with inducible genetic ablation of the gene encoding for TGFβ-receptor 2 (Tgfbr2) on CD4+T cells significantly reduced the disease phenotype. Further, it blocked the induction of pro-inflammatory T cell frequencies (Th2, Th9, Th17), but increased Treg cells. To translate these findings into a human clinically relevant context, Th2, Th9 and Treg cells were quantified both locally in induced sputum and systemically in blood of allergic rhinitis and asthma patients with or without allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT). Natural allergen exposure induced local and systemic Th2, Th9, and reduced Tregs cells, while therapeutic allergen exposure by AIT suppressed Th2 and Th9 cell frequencies along with TGF-β and IL-9 secretion. Altogether, these findings support that neutralization of TGF-β represents a viable therapeutic option in allergy and asthma, not posing the risk of immune dysregulation by impacting Tregs cells.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-12
C. T. Azevedo ◽  
A. C. Cotias ◽  
A. C. S. Arantes ◽  
T. P. T. Ferreira ◽  
M. A. Martins ◽  

Background. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are important in regulating responses to innocuous antigens, such as allergens, by controlling the Th2 response, a mechanism that appears to be compromised in atopic asthmatic individuals. Different isogenic mouse strains also have distinct immunological responses and susceptibility to the experimental protocols used to develop lung allergic inflammation. In this work, we investigated the differences in the frequency of Treg cell subtypes among A/J, BALB/c, and C57BL/6, under normal conditions and following induction of allergic asthma with ovalbumin (OVA). Methods. Subcutaneous sensitization followed by 4 consecutive intranasal OVA challenges induced asthma characteristic changes such as airway hyperreactivity, inflammation, and production of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-13, IL-5, and IL-33) in the lungs of only A/J and BALB/c but not C57BL/6 strain and evaluated by invasive whole-body plethysmography, flow cytometry, and ELISA, respectively. Results. A/J strain naturally showed a higher frequency of CD4+IL-10+ T cells in the lungs of naïve mice compared to the other strains, accompanied by higher frequencies of CD4+IL-4+ T cells. C57BL/6 mice did not develop lung inflammation and presented higher frequency of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) after the allergen challenge. In in vitro settings, allergen-specific stimulation of mediastinal LN (mLN) cells from OVA-challenged animals induced higher frequency of CD4+IL-10+ Treg cells from A/J strain and CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ from C57BL/6. Conclusions. The observed differences in the frequencies of Treg cell subtypes associated with the susceptibility of the animals to experimental asthma suggest that CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ and IL-10-producing CD4+ Treg cells may play different roles in asthma control. Similar to asthmatic individuals, the lack of an efficient regulatory response and susceptibility to the development of experimental asthma in A/J mice further suggests that this strain could be preferably chosen in experimental models of allergic asthma.

Antioxidants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 1926
Anna Freeman ◽  
Doriana Cellura ◽  
Magdalena Minnion ◽  
Bernadette O. Fernandez ◽  
Cosma Mirella Spalluto ◽  

Redox dysregulation and oxidative stress have been implicated in asthma pathogenesis. Exercise interventions improve symptoms and reduce inflammation in asthma patients, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We hypothesized that a personalised exercise intervention would improve asthma control by reducing lung inflammation through modulation of local and systemic reactive species interactions, thereby increasing antioxidant capacity. We combined deep redox metabolomic profiling with clinical assessment in an exploratory cohort of six female patients with symptomatic asthma and studied their responses to a metabolically targeted exercise intervention over 12 weeks. Plasma antioxidant capacity and circulating nitrite levels increased following the intervention (p = 0.028) and lowered the ratio of reduced to oxidised glutathione (p = 0.029); this was accompanied by improvements in physical fitness (p = 0.046), symptoms scores (p = 0.020), quality of life (p = 0.046), lung function (p = 0.028), airway hyperreactivity (p = 0.043), and eosinophilic inflammation (p = 0.007). Increased physical fitness correlated with improved plasma antioxidant capacity (p = 0.019), peak oxygen uptake and nitrite changes (p = 0.005), the latter also associated with reductions in peripheral blood eosinophil counts (p = 0.038). Thus, increases in “redox resilience” may underpin the clinical benefits of exercise in asthma. An improved understanding of exercise-induced alterations in redox regulation offers opportunities for greater treatment personalisation and identification of new treatment targets.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-24
Friederike Ebner ◽  
Katja Lindner ◽  
Katharina Janek ◽  
Agathe Niewienda ◽  
Piotr H. Malecki ◽  

Immunomodulation of airway hyperreactivity by excretory-secretory (ES) products of the first larval stage (L1) of the gastrointestinal nematode Trichuris suis is reported by us and others. Here, we aimed to identify the proteins accounting for the modulatory effects of the T. suis L1 ES proteins and studied six selected T. suis L1 proteins for their immunomodulatory efficacy in a murine OVA-induced allergic airway disease model. In particular, an enzymatically active T. suis chitinase mediated amelioration of clinical signs of airway hyperreactivity, primarily associated with suppression of eosinophil recruitment into the lung, the associated chemokines, and increased numbers of RELMα+ interstitial lung macrophages. While there is no indication of T. suis chitinase directly interfering with dendritic cell activation or antigen presentation to CD4 T cells, treatment of allergic mice with the worm chitinase influenced the hosts’ own chitinase activity in the inflamed lung. The three-dimensional structure of the T. suis chitinase as determined by high-resolution X-ray crystallography revealed high similarities to mouse acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase) but a unique ability of T. suis chitinase to form dimers. Our data indicate that the structural similarities between the parasite and host chitinase contribute to the disease-ameliorating effect of the helminth-derived chitinase on allergic lung inflammation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 20 ◽  
pp. S90
K. Craver ◽  
P. Beringer ◽  
M. Lester ◽  
A. Rao

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. e000974
Hajar Ali ◽  
Collin Brooks ◽  
Julian Crane ◽  
Richard Beasley ◽  
Stephen Holgate ◽  

BackgroundNeural mechanisms may play an important role in non-eosinophilic asthma (NEA). This study compared airway sensory nerve reactivity, using capsaicin challenge, in eosinophilic asthma (EA) and NEA and non-asthmatics.MethodsThirty-eight asthmatics and 19 non-asthmatics (aged 14–21 years) underwent combined hypertonic saline challenge/sputum induction, fractional exhaled nitric oxide, atopy and spirometry tests, followed by capsaicin challenge. EA and NEA were defined using a sputum eosinophil cut-point of 2.5%. Airway hyperreactivity was defined as a ≥15% drop in FEV1 during saline challenge. Sensory nerve reactivity was defined as the lowest capsaicin concentration that evoked 5 (C5) coughs.ResultsNon-eosinophilic asthmatics (n=20) had heightened capsaicin sensitivity (lower C5) compared with non-asthmatics (n=19) (geometric mean C5: 58.3 µM, 95% CI 24.1 to 141.5 vs 193.6 µM, 82.2 to 456.0; p<0.05). NEA tended to also have greater capsaicin sensitivity than EA, with the difference in capsaicin sensitivity between NEA and EA being of similar magnitude (58.3 µM, 24.1 to 141.5 vs 191.0 µM, 70.9 to 514.0) to that observed between NEA and non-asthmatics; however, this did not reach statistical significance (p=0.07). FEV1 was significantly reduced from baseline following capsaicin inhalation in both asthmatics and non-asthmatics but no differences were found between subgroups. No associations with capsaicin sensitivity and atopy, sputum eosinophils, blood eosinophils, asthma control or treatment were observed.ConclusionNEA, but not EA, showed enhanced capsaicin sensitivity compared with non-asthmatics. Sensory nerve reactivity may therefore play an important role in the pathophysiology of NEA.

Gina N. Calco ◽  
Becky J. Proskocil ◽  
David B. Jacoby ◽  
Allison D Fryer ◽  
Zhenying Nie

Increased insulin is associated with obesity-related airway hyperreactivity and asthma. We tested whether the use of metformin, an anti-diabetic drug used to reduce insulin resistance, can reduce circulating insulin, thereby preventing airway hyperreactivity in rats with dietary obesity. Male and female rats were fed a high- or low-fat diet for 5 weeks. Some male rats were simultaneously treated with metformin (100 mg/kg, p.o.). In separate experiments, after 5 weeks of a high-fat diet, some rats were switched to a low-fat diet, while others continued a high-fat diet for an additional 5 weeks. Bronchoconstriction and bradycardia in response to bilateral electrical vagus nerve stimulation or to inhaled methacholine were measured in anesthetized and vagotomized rats. Body weight, body fat, caloric intake, fasting glucose and insulin were measured. Vagally-induced bronchoconstriction was potentiated only in male rats on a high-fat diet. Males gained more body weight, body fat, and had increased levels of fasting insulin, compared to females. Metformin prevented development of vagally-induced airway hyperreactivity in male rats on high-fat diet, in addition to inhibiting weight gain, fat gain and increased insulin. In contrast, switching rats to a low-fat diet for 5 weeks reduced body weight and body fat, it did not reverse fasting glucose, fasting insulin or potentiation of vagally-induced airway hyperreactivity. These data suggest that medications that target insulin may be effective treatment for obesity-related asthma.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Yuying Zeng ◽  
Yun Zhang ◽  
Xinyan Huang ◽  
Lizhen Song ◽  
Katherine Polsky ◽  

Abstract Background Inhalation of fungal spores is a strong risk factor for severe asthma and experimentally leads to development of airway mycosis and asthma-like disease in mice. However, in addition to fungal spores, humans are simultaneously exposed to other inflammatory agents such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), with uncertain relevance to disease expression. To determine how high dose inhalation of LPS influences the expression of allergic airway disease induced by the allergenic mold Aspergillus niger (A. niger). Methods C57BL/6J mice were intranasally challenged with the viable spores of A. niger with and without 1 μg of LPS over two weeks. Changes in airway hyperreactivity, airway and lung inflammatory cell recruitment, antigen-specific immunoglobulins, and histopathology were determined. Results In comparison to mice challenged only with A. niger, addition of LPS (1 μg) to A. niger abrogated airway hyperresponsiveness and strongly attenuated airway eosinophilia, PAS+ goblet cells and TH2 responses while enhancing TH1 and TH17 cell recruitment to lung. Addition of LPS resulted in more severe, diffuse lung inflammation with scattered, loosely-formed parenchymal granulomas, but failed to alter fungus-induced IgE and IgG antibodies. Conclusions In contrast to the strongly allergic lung phenotype induced by fungal spores alone, addition of a relatively high dose of LPS abrogates asthma-like features, replacing them with a phenotype more consistent with acute hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP). These findings extend the already established link between airway mycosis and asthma to HP and describe a robust model for further dissecting the pathophysiology of HP.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document