Aortic Dissection
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Hironobu Nishiori ◽  
Yuichi Hirano ◽  
Masayoshi Otsu ◽  
Hiroyuki Watanabe

A 59-year-old man with a long smoking history presented with sudden back pain. Frank’s sign was noticed in his bilateral ears, and computed tomography revealed Stanford type A acute aortic dissection. If young patients have Frank’s sign, attention should be paid to atherosclerotic disease including aortic disease.

Vascular ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 170853812110521
Fan Zhu ◽  
Jia Chen ◽  
Mingyao Luo ◽  
Dongting Yao ◽  
Xiaobo Hu ◽  

Objectives To evaluate the potential effect of EphrinB2 in human thoracic aortic dissection (TAD) and to illustrate the mechanisms governing the role of EphrinB2 in the growth of human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC). Methods In the study, EphrinB2 expression was investigated by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry in 12 pairs of TAD and adjacent human tissues. HASMCs were used for in vitro experiments. Next, EphrinB2 overexpression and depletion in HASMCs were established by EphrinB2-overexpressing vectors and small interfering RNA, respectively. The transfection efficiency was evaluated by qRT-PCR and Western blot. The effects of overexpression and depletion of EphrinB2 on cell proliferation, migration, and invasion were tested in vitro. Cell Counting Kit-8, flow cytometry and transwell migration/invasion, and wound healing assay were used to explore the function of EphrinB2 on HASMC cell lines. The relationship between EphrinB2 and F-actin was assessed by Western blot, immunofluorescence, and Co-IP. Results We found that EphrinB2 was a prognostic biomarker of TAD patients. Moreover, EphrinB2 expression negatively correlated to aortic dissection tissues, and disease incidence of males, suggesting that EphrinB2 might act as a TAD suppressor by promoting proliferation or decreasing apoptosis in HASMC. Next, over-expression of EphrinB2 in HASMC lines drove cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, and inhibited apoptosis while knockdown EphrinB2 showed the opposite phenomenon, respectively. Furthermore, the level of F-actin in mRNA, protein, and distribution in HASMC cell lines highly matched with the expression of EphrinB2, which indicated that EphrinB2 could mediate the HASMC cytoskeleton via inducing F-actin. Conclusions In conclusion, our results first provided the pivotal role of EphrinB2 in HASMC proliferation initiated by mediating F-actin and demonstrated a prognostic biomarker and the potential targets for therapy to prevent thoracic aortic dissection.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (34) ◽  
pp. 10689-10695
Li Zhang ◽  
Wei-Kang Guan ◽  
Hua-Ping Wu ◽  
Xiang Li ◽  
Kai-Ping Lv ◽  

2021 ◽  
Kayo Sugiyama ◽  
Hirotaka Watanuki ◽  
Masato Tochii ◽  
Yasuhiro Futamura ◽  
Yuka Kitagawa ◽  

Abstract Background Despite continuous developments and advances in the perioperative management of patients suffering from acute aortic dissection type A (AADA), the associated postoperative morbidity and mortality remain high and strongly depend on the preoperative clinical status. The associated postoperative mortality is still hard to predict prior to the surgical procedure. The so-called German Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection Type A (GERAADA) score uses very basic and easily retrievable parameters and was specifically designed for predicting the 30-day mortality rate in patients undergoing surgery for AADA. This study evaluated impact of the GERAADA score in the authors’ institutional results. MethodsAmong 101 acute type A aortic dissection patients treated at our hospital during August 2015–March 2021, the GERAADA was calculated individually and retrospectively. Predicted and actual mortalities were assessed, and independent predicted factors were searched. The primary endpoint was defined as comparison of GERAADA scores and early mortality, and the secondary endpoints were defined as comparison of GERAADA scores and other postoperative results, and comparison of preoperative factors and postoperative results regardless to GERAADA scores.ResultsWhile the overall 30-day mortality for the entire study cohort calculated by the GERAADA score was 14.3 (8.1-77.6) %, the actual mortality rate was 6%. However, the GERAADA score was significantly high in some postoperative complications and showed significant correlation with some peri- and post-operative factors. In addition, factors not belonging to GERAADA score such as time from onset to arrival at the hospital, time from onset to arrival at the operation room, spouse presence, and hemodialysis were significantly associated with 30-day mortality.ConclusionsAlthough the actual mortality was lower than predicted, GERAADA score may impact on the postoperative course. In addition, it would be desirable to add parameters such as the time from onset to arrival, family background, and hemodialysis for further accuracy.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Dandan Jiang ◽  
Qu Chen ◽  
Weiming Su ◽  
Dinghui Wu

Purpose. To determine whether the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) aids in the detection of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients with type B aortic dissection (TBAD). Methods. 324 patients with TBAD or type B aortic intramural hematoma (TB-AIMH) underwent an overnight sleep study. We divided the eligible 256 studied subjects into three groups: group A (n = 109, TBAD patients with OSA), group B (n = 68, TB-AIMH patients with OSA), and group C (n = 79, TBAD patients without OSA). Baseline characteristics, biochemical and sleep parameters, and STOP-Bang questionnaire scores were collected. To assess the predictive efficacy of potential variables, multivariate logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used. Results. The study found that about 58% of TBAD patients and 54% of TB-AIMH patients had OSA, a majority of whom had moderate to severe OSA (95.41% and 89.71%, respectively). In the comparison of sleep parameters between patients with TBAD and TB-AIMH, no other than apnea and hypopnea index (AHI) made a significant difference. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (odds ratio (OR): 3.614, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.273–5.748, and P < 0.05 ) and STOP-Bang scores (OR: 1.97, 95% CI: 1.34–2.90, and P < 0.05 ) were both independent predictors for OSA in patients with TBAD. ROC curves showed NLR had higher sensitivity (65% versus 59%) and specificity (86% versus 57%) for OSA than the STOP-Bang questionnaire. Furthermore, NLR was positively correlated with AHI through the Spearman test (r = 0.398 and P < 0.05 ). Conclusion. NLR was an independent predictor of OSA in TBAD patients with higher sensitivity and specificity than the STOP-Bang questionnaire, and it was positively associated with AHI. NLR may aid in the diagnosis and risk stratification of OSA in TBAD patients.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (6) ◽  
pp. 93-101
Hui Zhang ◽  
Ruicheng Zhang ◽  
Hua Zhang ◽  
Feng Li ◽  
Jianming Zhao ◽  

Objective: This study analyzed the risk factors of neurological complications in patients with Stanford type A aortic dissection after Sun’s procedure in a single-center with the purpose of improving the effects. Methods: From January 2019 to December 2020, the clinical data of 480 patients with Stanford type A aortic dissection, who were treated by Sun’s procedure in our center were retrospectively analyzed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to determine the risk factors of postoperative neurological complications. According to whether there were neurological complications after surgery, they were divided into two groups: the group with complications (n=70) and the group without complications (n=410). The clinical data of the two groups were collected and compared. Results: There were 70 cases of patients with postoperative neurological complications in 480 cases. The incidence rates of temporary neurological dysfunction (TND) and permanent neurological dysfunction (PND) was 11.5% (55/480) and 3.1% (15/480), respectively. Univariate analysis showed that the age (? 70 years), stroke history, femoral artery intubation and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time were associated with postoperative PND (p < 0.05). Renal dysfunction, emergency surgery, postoperative hypernatremia, postoperative hyperglycemia, postoperative hypoxemia, postoperative low cardiac output syndrome, and assisted time of suction influenced the occurrence of postoperative TND (p < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age (? 70 years), stroke history, femoral artery intubation and CPB time were independent risk factors for PND. Renal dysfunction, emergency surgery, postoperative hypernatremia, postoperative hyperglycemia, postoperative hypoxemia, postoperative low cardiac output syndrome, and aspiration time were independent risk factors for TND. Compared with the two groups, the hospitalization time and ICU time of the patients in the neurological complications group were significantly prolonged, and the mortality rate was significantly increased (p < 0.05). Conclusion: There are many risk factors for neurological complications in patients with Stanford type A aortic dissection after surgery. With the improvement of surgical techniques, optimization of cerebral perfusion, and interventions for risk factors, Sun’s procedure remains the preferred treatment for Stanford type A aortic dissection.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Xi Xie ◽  
Xiangjie Fu ◽  
Yawen Zhang ◽  
Wanting Huang ◽  
Lingjin Huang ◽  

Abstract Background The platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), a novel inflammatory marker, is generally associated with increased in-hospital mortality risk. We aimed to investigate the association between PLR and postoperative in-hospital mortality risk in patients with type A acute aortic dissection (AAAD). Methods Patients (n = 270) who underwent emergency surgery for AAAD at Xiangya Hospital of Central South University between January 2014 and May 2019 were divided into three PLR-based tertiles. We used multiple regression analyses to evaluate the independent effect of PLR on in-hospital mortality, and smooth curve fitting and a segmented regression model with adjustment of confounding factors to analyze the threshold effect between PLR and in-hospital mortality risk. Results The overall postoperative in-hospital mortality was 13.33%. After adjusting for confounders, in-hospital mortality risk in the medium PLR tertile was the lowest (Odds ratio [OR] = 0.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.06–0.66). We observed a U-shaped relationship between PLR and in-hospital mortality risk after smoothing spline fitting was applied. When PLR < 108, the in-hospital mortality risk increased by 10% per unit decrease in PLR (OR = 0.90, P = 0.001). When the PLR was between 108 and 188, the mortality risk was the lowest (OR = 1.02, P = 0.288). When PLR > 188, the in-hospital mortality risk increased by 6% per unit increase in PLR (OR = 1.06, P = 0.045). Conclusions There was a U-shaped relationship between PLR and in-hospital mortality in patients with AAAD, with an optimal PLR range for the lowest in-hospital mortality risk of 108–188. PLR may be a useful preoperative prognostic tool for predicting in-hospital mortality risk in patients with AAAD and can ensure risk stratification and early treatment initiation.

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